Mammal Images Library

The MIL provides media for educational purposes.


D. G. Huckaby (

Business Manager

E. J. Finck


  • B. R. Blood
  • K. M. Everson
  • C. P. Groves
  • L. K. Hall
  • L. E. Harding
  • B. Huffman
  • I. G. Kulahci
  • L. L. Master
  • J. Ryan
  • J. S. Scheibe
  • B. P. Tanis
  • B. M. Zinke

History and Mission

The Mammal Images Library (MIL) was first established as the Mammal Slide Library in 1977 to provide low-cost slides of mammals principally for educational purposes.  The name was changed and the role broadened to reflect changes in how images of mammals are now stored and accessed.  The Mammal Images Library is a nonprofit educational program of the American Society of Mammalogists with the primary goal of providing images of mammals for use in educational purposes worldwide.  The library consists of over 1500 images representing more than 80% of mammalian families from all continents. More than 110,000 slides are in use in more than 50 countries.  All slides currently in the library have been converted to digital format and are available in low and high resolution files.  In 2010, the library committee made the decision to include digital video of living mammals.  In addition to optical projection for nonprofit instruction, many of the images can be employed (with permission) for other purposes, including commercial uses.  See here to view the image gallery.


Images.— The primary activity of the MIL is to make available digital images for optical projection for nonprofit instruction.  Low resolution images can be downloaded free from the MIL website.  An online catalog with a brief description and thumbnail of each image/video, date and locality of image/video, photographer, geographic distribution of the species, and a classification of the species including an English common name is available on the MIL website.

Acquisitions.—The MIL exists only because of the generosity of its many contributors.  Unfortunately, many taxa are still missing or are poorly represented in our library.  An important activity remains identifying and acquiring new images for the library.

Changes in use of images.—Conditions for other than optical projection of images for nonprofit educational use are determined at the time of image acceptance into the library.  These conditions are specified in the contributor's agreements.  The committee does not accept images into the library anymore for which we are not granted rights of digital reproduction for nonprofit educational purposes.

Royalties.—To facilitate use of images for commercial purposes, the contributor's agreement identifies who is responsible for making decisions regarding royalties.  Additionally, for images where the MIL is responsible for decisions regarding royalties for commercial use, current policy is

  1. A minimum of $50 will be charged for use of any high-resolution, library image if the use is intended primarily for education and the image is of fundamental importance in the project and
  2. Royalties shall be negotiated between the chair of the MIL and the customer(s) for commercial uses where high-resolution images from the MIL are of fundamental importance to the project or are a focal point and where the project is expected to reach a large audience.

 In developing policies regarding royalties and royalty amounts, it is important to keep in mind that the fundamental goal of the MIL is education.

Customers seeking commercial use of images for which contributor's agreements indicate that all royalties are to be paid to the contributor are directed to the contributor for royalty negotiations.


The committee’s officers have the following responsibilities:

Business Manager

  • Receipt of all royalties and other fees
  • Maintenance of the financial records of the committee
  • Disbursing funds used for expenditures


  • Maintenance of digital image library
  • Updating contributor's agreements and development of database
  • Advertising
  • Mammal Images Library display for annual meeting
  • Image acquisition
  • Inquiries regarding other than nonprofit commercial use of images
  • Liaison with the Informatics Committee (currently, the chair of that committee) for web site development and maintenance