Mammals of Texas



Common Name

Species Name



Mammal Image Library #s

Mammalian Species #

IUCN Status





TX Notes

TX Citations

Rodentia Muridae Prairie Vole Microtus ochrogaster Lower Risk Northern and Central Great Plains - EC Alberta to S Manitoba, Canada; south to N Texas Panhandle, SW Oklahoma and Arkansas; eastwards to C Tennessee, westernmost West Virginia, and W Ohio; relictual populations in C Colorado, N New Mexico and coastal prairies of SW Louisiana and adjacent Texas 1160 355         Most active at dawn or dusk. Unlike most voles, forms monogamous pairs that share a nest; both parents care for young and defend their home range. Older offspring may remain with parents and help tend a new litter. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and agricultural areas, usually on dry sandy soils at lower elevations. Found in tall grass  
Rodentia Muridae White-throated Woodrat Neotoma albigula Endangered as N. varia, Lower Risk as N. albigula SW Colorado and W New Mexico west of the Rio Grande to SE California, south to N Sinaloa and S Chihuahua west of the Rio Conchos, Mexico, including the islands in the Sea of Cortez   310         Mainly nocturnal, but sometimes seen loitering near its house by day in overcast weather. Eats mostly cacti; usually builds a large house under a prickly pear cactus, yucca or cholla, but may den in a rock crevice. Habitat is low to high deserts with abundant succulents, also piñon-juniper zone; favors moderately rocky slopes. Often associated with cholla & prickly pear cactus, where they construct above-ground dens.  
Rodentia Muridae Eastern Woodrat Neotoma floridana U.S ESA - Endangered as N. f. smalli; IUCN - Endangered as N. f. smalli, Lower Risk (nt) as N. f. baileyi and N. f. haematoreia, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SC and SE USA from EC Colorado to C Texas, eastwards to the Atlantic seaboard, from S North Carolina to peninsular Florida; isolated population on Florida Keys (smalli) 1016 139         Active year-round, but may stay in its house in bad weather. Climbs well and is semi-arboreal. Habitat is variable; includes bluffs and rocky areas, swamps and hammocks, forested uplands and dry scrub pine. Nest under trees or rocks; often with a surface "house" of twigs, leaves & grasses.  
Rodentia Muridae Mexican Woodrat Neotoma mexicana Lower Risk SE Utah and C Colorado, southwards through W and interior Mexico to highlands of Guatemala, El Salvador and W Honduras 1167 262         Eats a variety of green plant material including some conifers, also seeds, berries and acorns. Seldom makes a large stick house, but usually constructs its nest in a rock crevice. Habitat is cliffs, talus slopes and rocky outcrops mostly in montane coniferous forest, sometimes in scrub oak and piñon-juniper woods. Found in mountainous regions. Burrow entrances marked by rubbish & fecal droppings, but rarely by large dens.  
Rodentia Muridae Southern Plains Woodrat Neotoma micropus Lower Risk SE Colorado and SW Kansas through W Texas and most of New Mexico; south in Mexico to N Chihuahua, E San Luis Potosi, and S Tamaulipas   330         Eats cactus leaves and fruit, mesquite beans, acorns and other plant material and can obtain sufficient water from its food. Makes a house under a prickly pear cactus or shrub and probably uses the same house for life. Lives in dry grasslands with cactus, mesquite and other shrubs; mainly found in flat plains, occasionally on rocky hillsides. Found in brushlands & semi-arid regions. Constructs den of sticks & cacti.  
Rodentia Muridae Golden Mouse Ochrotomys nuttalli Lower Risk SE USA, from SE Missouri across to E West Virginia and S Virginia, south to E Texas, the Gulf Coast and C Florida 1647 75         Semi-arboreal; climbs among vines and dense thickets using its semi-prehensile tail for balance. In addition to baseball-sized nests used by a single adult, sometimes makes larger nests occupied by a group of 8 or more. Habitat is forested areas with dense tangles of briars, vines and brush; most common in floodplains. Live in trees. Omnivorous.  
Rodentia Muridae Common Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Data Deficient as O. z. ripensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) North America, north to the tree line, including Newfoundland; south to the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande and lower Colorado River valleys. Introduced to Czech Republic in 1905 and now widespread in the Palearctic, including C and N Europe, most of Ukraine, Russia and Siberia, adjacent parts of Mongolia and scattered through China, NE Korea, and Honshu Island, Japan; also into southernmost Argentina 1162, 1163 141         Mainly nocturnal, but also active on overcast or rainy days; more likely to be seen by day than other large semiaquatic rodents. Swims well and is more buoyant than a beaver. Habitat is shallow marshes with abundant cattails; less common along streams or in wooded swamps. Live in marshes and water ways. Live in dome-shaped houses often surrounded by water, or in burrows in banks.  
Rodentia Muridae Chihuahuan Grasshopper Mouse Onychomys arenicola Lower Risk Chihuahuan Desert: SE Arizona, SC New Mexico, and W Texas, south to Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi and W Tamaulipas, Mexico 1168           Similar to Northern Grasshopper mouse in habits. Breeds April-August; litter size is 2-7. Lives in low desert with scattered shrubs such as creosote bush, tarbush and snakeweed, on gravelly or rocky soils. Eat insects & small mice.  
Rodentia Muridae Northern Grasshopper Mouse Onychomys leucogaster Data Deficient as O. l. durranti, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) S Alberta, S Saskatchewan, and SW Manitoba, Canada, south through much of Great Plains and Great Basin region of USA, to NC Sonora and N Tamaulipas, Mexico 253, 1017, 1169 87         Nocturnal; most active on dark moonless nights. Much more carnivorous than most mice, taking large scorpions and beetles and some small vertebrates; also eats seeds and plant material. Mostly very solitary. Habitat is deserts, grasslands, prairies and shrub steppe; favors areas with rather sparse vegetation and sandy soils. Predatory on insects, scorpions, & small or young mice.  
Rodentia Muridae Coues' Oryzomys Oryzomys couesi Lower Risk Extreme S Texas; Mexico, excluding NC plateau region, south through most of Central America, to NW Colombia; including Jamaica, Isla Cozumel, and allopatric populations in S Baja California Sur and WC Sonora             Semi-aquatic; swims well and usually dives into water if disturbed. Sometimes seen at night swimming in deep water at some distance from land. Lives in cattail and bulrush marshes, wet grassy areas near oxbow lakes in Texas; brackish or fresh water. Found in other habitats farther south, but almost always near water. Found in cattails & grassy areas around oxbow lakes. Their habitat is being drained.  
Rodentia Muridae Northern Pygmy Mouse Baiomys taylori Lower Risk SE Arizona and SW New Mexico, Saw Oklahoma and E Texas, south to Michoacán, C Hidalgo, and C Veracruz, Mexico 72, 1164 285         Mainly nocturnal, but sometimes active by day. Constructs ball shaped nests with 1-2 openings under logs or fallen vegetation or in small burrows. Lives in grassy areas with thick ground cover - roadsides, fields, prairies, desert grasslands and open woodlands. Very small. Found in grassy areas, especially along highways  
Rodentia Muridae Texas Deermouse Peromyscus attwateri Lower Risk Edwards Plateau of C and N Texas, eastwards through SW and E Oklahoma to SE Kansas, SW Missouri and NW Arkansas   48         Semi-arboreal; climbs high in junipers and other trees, also frequents rocky crevices and fallen logs. Eats seeds, other plant matter and insects. Habitat is cliffs and rocky areas dominated by juniper, also oak woodland and cedar glades. Sometimes found in trees in some areas.  
Rodentia Muridae Brush Deermouse Peromyscus boylii Lower Risk Much of SW USA, from N California to westernmost Oklahoma, south to N Baja California Norta and Trans-Pecos Texas, along the Sierra Madre Occidental and W Central Plateau to Queretaro and W Hidalgo, Mexico 1171 838         Climbs well, but usually nests in rock crevices or under fallen trees. Probably does not dig its own burrows and requires rocks or other ground cover for shelter. Lives in woods and dense brush with rocks, fallen trees, or brush piles; usually found above 3,000 ft to about 8,500 ft. Climb trees easily  
Rodentia Muridae Cactus Deermouse Peromyscus eremicus Lower Risk SE California, S Nevada, and SW Utah east to Trans-Pecos Texas; south along mainland coast to C Sinaloa and on the Mexican Plateau to N Zacatecas and S San Luis Potosi, Mexico 1173 118         Mainly terrestrial, but may climb in low vegetation. Sometimes lives in part of a woodrat den or an abandoned burrow of another mammal. Lives in deserts, usually on rocky soil with sparse vegetation, but also occurs on sandy flats and in desert grassland and chaparral. Habitat is arid.  
Rodentia Muridae Cotton Deermouse Peromyscus gossypinus U.S. ESA - Endangered as P. g. allapaticola; IUCN - Extinct as P. g. restrictus, Vulnerable as P. g. allapaticola, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SE USA, fro SE Oklahoma, extreme S Illinois and SE Virginia, southwards, skirting the S Appalachians, to E Texas, the Gulf States, and peninsular Florida 677, 678 70         Climbs and swims well. Eats a variety of plant and animal foods. Prefers wet forests, hammocks and swamps; also found in pine woods, thickets and rocky bluffs. Woodlands. Sometimes found in trees. Omnivorous.  
Rodentia Muridae White-footed Deermouse Peromyscus leucopus Data Deficient as P. l. ammodytes, otherwise Lower Risk S Alberta to S Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, Canada; throughout much of C and E USA, excluding Florida; southwards to N Durango and along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec and NW Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico 73, 251, 1174 247         Mainly terrestrial, but climbs well and may forage or nest well above the ground. Swims well, occupies many islands in lakes. Habitat is deciduous and mixed forests, hedgerows, brushy areas, croplands and dry semidesert regions in the Southwest. Woodlands; along drainages. Nests may be in hollow trees.  
Rodentia Muridae North American Deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus Lower Risk (nt) as P. m. anacapae and P. m. clemintis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Panhandle of Alaska and across N Canada, south through most of continental USA, excluding the SE and E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico; including many land bridge islands 74, 1175           Woodland forms climb very well and are semi-arboreal. Feeds on seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi and other foods; stores excess in caches. Occupies almost every habitat type, from boreal forest and tundra to desert, prairies, swamps and high mountains. Common in west, but uncommon in east & coastal areas.  
Rodentia Muridae Northern Rock Deermouse Peromyscus nasutus Lower Risk C Colorado and SE Utah, south through New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas, to NW Coahuila, Mexico 1172           Semi-arboreal; climbs well, using its long tail for balance. Can hear frequencies to 100 kHz and may use ultrasonics when navigating through rocky terrain at night. Found mainly at higher elevations in rocky outcrops and talus slopes in the piñon-oak-juniper zone; also found on lava flows in New Mexico. Found in rugged, rocky habitat with sparse vegetation.  
Rodentia Muridae White-ankled Deermouse Peromyscus pectoralis Lower Risk SE New Mexico and C Texas, south along the Mexican Plateau and Cordillera Oriental to N Jalisco and Hidalgo, Mexico   49         Mainly terrestrial; usually found on rock ledges or in leaf litter. Feeds on juniper berries, acorns, hackberries, seeds and insects. Habitat is rocky outcrops, talus slopes, bluffs and oak-juniper woodlands. Rocky habitat, often with oaks & junipers.  
Rodentia Muridae Piñon Deermouse Peromyscus truei Lower Risk (nt) as P. t.. comanche, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) USA, SW and C Oregon to W and SE Colorado, south to N Baja California Norte, Mexico, Arizona and New Mexico; isolated populations in N Texas (comanche) and S Baja California Sur (lagunae) 1176 161         Hops away when disturbed, may climb a tree or disappear among rocks if pursued. Eats mostly piñon and juniper seeds, also takes insects and fungi. Prefers piñon and piñon-juniper stands, usually among rocks. Found with boulders.  
Rodentia Muridae Fulvous Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys fulvescens Lower Risk SC Arizona, NC, S and E Texas, to SW Missouri and W Mississippi, USA; south through much of Mexico, to W Nicaragua; excluding Yucatan Peninsula and Caribbean coastal lowlands.   174         A good climber. Eats mostly invertebrates in spring and summer, seeds in fall and winter. Two adults often share a nest and may travel together. Habitat is oldfields, thickets and mixed brushy grassland. A small mouse, but the largest of harvest mice.  
Rodentia Muridae Eastern Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys humulis Lower Risk SE USA, from E Oklahoma and E Texas eastwards to the Atlantic seaboard, from S Maryland to peninsular Florida 685 565         Feeds on small seeds of grasses and weeds, also moth larvae and insects. Makes a ball-shaped nest of grass and plant fibers in low vegetation. Lives in oldfields, waste ground, and ditches or other wet areas, also broom sedge and brier patches; seldom found in forests. Very small.  
Rodentia Muridae Western Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis Lower Risk SC British Columbia and SE Alberta, Canada; through much of W and NC USA; south to N Baja California Norte and through interior Mexico to C Oaxaca 1018 167         Feeds on small seeds, moth larvae, beetles and other insects. Nests are usually well concealed on the ground or low in vegetation. Prefers wet meadows and overgrown fields; also found in dry areas and clearing in forests. Medium-sized harvest mouse.  
Rodentia Muridae Plains Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys montanus Lower Risk High Plains of C USA, from W South Dakota and E Wyoming to EC Texas and extreme SE Arizona; NE Sonora and Chihuahua to N Durango, Mexico   257         Feeds on flowers and seeds of weeds and grasses, also eats grasshoppers and other insects. Makes a ball-shaped nest on or just above the ground. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and cultivated fields. Very small.  
Rodentia Muridae Tawny-bellied Cotton Rat Sigmodon fulviventer Extinct as S. f. goldmani, otherwise Lower Risk SE Arizona, WC New Mexico, and SW Texas, south through interior Mexico to Guanajuato and NW Michoacán 549           Habits similar to Hispid Cotton Rat. Found more among the sedges at water's edge, while Hispid is found in the more peripheral grassy areas. Habitat is dense grass, mesquite grassland, grassy areas in oak and piñon-juniper woodlands. Found in dense bunch grasses.  
Rodentia Muridae Hispid Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Lower Risk (nt) as S. h. eremicus and S. h. insulicola, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SE USA, from S Nebraska to C Virginia and south to SE Arizona and peninsular Florida; NW Chihuahua to N Tamaulipas, south through interior Mexico at least to C Zacatecas and W San Luis Potosi 76, 1177           Mainly crepuscular, but can be active at any time. Broad distribution, abundance and daytime activity make this one of the more conspicuous small rodents. Habitat is tall-grass prairies, meadows, agricultural areas and oldfields; favors areas with dense vegetation but also occurs in mesquite desert with little ground cover. Found in tall grasses.  
Rodentia Muridae Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat Sigmodon ochrognathus Lower Risk SE Arizona, extreme SW New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas, south to C Durango, Mexico; northern outlier population may persist in Guadalupe Mountains, Transpecos, Texas             Diurnal and fairly easy to observe dashing from one area of cover to another. Usually nests aboveground, but may use pocket gopher burrows. Lives on rocky slopes with scattered clumps of grass in foothills and mountains; occupies drier and more upland terrain that other cotton rats. Isolated groups at higher elevations.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Gulf Coast Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys compactus   Mainland, Padre and Mustang Islands of S Texas, and barrier Islands of N Tamaulipas, Mexico. 1323 369 Lower Risk (lc)   Eats mostly seeds but will also take insects. Habitat is sand dunes and deserts with sandy soils and sparse vegetation. Prefers disturbed or overgrazed areas to undisturbed areas with thick vegetation. Considered distinct from ordii by Johnson and Selander (1971), Schmidly and Hendricks (1976), and Baumgardner and Schmidly (1981), who also documented sympatry between compactus and ordii.  Hall (1981:565) provisionally retained compactus as a subspecies of ordii.  Reviewed by Baumgardner (1991, Mammalian Species No. 369). Williams et al. (1993) regarded sennetti J. A. Allen as a valid subspecies. Unique to TX & Tamaulipas, Mex  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern fox squirrel Sciurus niger   Texas north to Manitoba, east to the Atlantic Coast. 96, 880, 1644, 1645 479   introduced population       Large tree squirrel  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Texas Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys elator Listed by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department as Threatened. Southwestern Oklahoma and northcentral Texas.   232 Vulnerable     Habitat is open mesquite grassland on clay or clay-loam soils. Probably no longer occurs in Oklahoma (Caire et al., 1989).  Reviewed by Carter et al. (1985, Mammalian Species No. 232) and Williams et al. (1993).  Sexual dimorphism and morphometric variation reviewed by Best (1987, 1993d) and molecular systematic relationships by Mantooth et al. (2000).  Most active on dark moonless nights. Makes large mounds, usually under mesquites, with complex tunnels and multiple entrances. Unique to TX & one county in OK. Large-sized with white tuft on tail.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Merriam's Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys merriami   Northwestern Nevada and northeastern California to Texas, south to Baja California Sur, northern Sinaloa and Mexican Plateau to San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 1327, 1328   Critically Endangered as D. margaritae and D. insularis; Data Deficient as D. m. collinus and D. m. parvus; otherwise Lower Risk (lc).   Eats a variety of seeds, also green plant material and some insects. Habitat is open deserts with scattered grasses and shrubs, on sand, clay or gravelly soils. Revised by Lidicker (1960).  Includes insularis Merriam, viewed as a separate species by Lidicker (1960; see also Huey, 1964, Hall, 1981, and Best and Thomas, 1991a, Mammalian Species No. 374), but as a subspecies of merriami by Best and Janecek (1992), Williams et al. (1993), and Patton and Alvarez-Castañeda (2000).  Also includes margaritae Merriam (see Lidicker, 1960; Williams et al., 1993; Patton and Alvarez-Castañeda, 1999), which has been considered by others to be a distinct species (Best, 1992, Mammalian Species No. 400; Hall, 1981; Huey, 1964).  The inclusion of both insularis and margaritae within merriami is supported by mitochondrial DNA sequence data (Riddle et al., 2000b), although these same data may eventually result in separation of populations of merriami (including insularis and margaritae) from the southern half of the Baja California Peninsula as a species separate from the remaining parts of the species’ range.  This species makes short simple burrows that do not result in a mound; entrances are usually under a shrub. Tolerates a wide range of conditions. Where it is found with D. ordii, D. Merriami usually occurs in harder, stonier soils.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Ord's Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys ordii   Southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta (Canada) and southeastern Washington south through Great Plains and intermontane basins of western USA, to Mexican Plateau as far south as Hidalgo (Mexico). 560, 693, 1099, 1352 353 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in dry grasslands, desert scrub, piñon-juniper and sagebrush, almost always on fine sandy soils or sand dunes. Revised by Setzer (1949) and reviewed by Garrison and Best (1990, Mammalian Species No. 353); subspecies follow Williams et al. (1993).  Does not include compactus, see Schmidly and Hendricks (1976), Baumgardner and Schmidly (1981), and comment under that species.  Williams et al. (1993) provide a list of what they consider as valid subspecies.  Most active on dark cloudy nights, seldom above ground by day or in bad weather. Makes deep burrows, with entrances often under shrubs or on banks. Inhabit arid areas. Usually one of the first mice into stabilizing sand dunes.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys spectabilis   Southcentral Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas (USA) south to northern Sonora, Chihuahua and San Luis Potosi (Mexico). 561, 1333, 1334 311 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in desert grasslands with scattered creosote bush and other shrubs, usually found on hard soils with high gravel content. Revised by Nader (1978) who included nelsoni; but also see Anderson (1972), Matson (1980), Hall (1981:581), and Williams et al. (1993) who presented evidence of specific distinctness.  Reviewed by Best (1988a, Mammalian Species No. 311).  Subspecies listed by Best (1988a) and Williams et al. (1993).  Most active on dark moonless nights. Burrows usually have multiple entrances and form a complex underground network. Large-sized with distinct white tuft on tail.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Mexican Spiny Pocket Mouse Liomys irroratus   Southern Texas (USA), and southcentral Chihuahua to Oaxaca (Mexico).   82 Lower Risk (lc)   Seeds of shrubs and weeds. Lives in palm forest and dense brush along ridges in Texas. Reviewed by Dowler and Genoways (1978, Mammalian Species No. 82).  Currently recognized subspecies delineated by Williams et al. (1993).  Caches seeds in burrows.  Entrances to burrow may be covered with leaves by day. Hairs are pointed & harsh  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Chihuahuan Pocket Mouse Chaetodipus eremicus   Chihuahuan Desert from south New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas (USA) through Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Zacatecas, Nuevo Leon, and San Luis Potosi (Mexico).   768 Lower Risk (lc)     Habits and habitat similar to Desert Pocket Mouse. Lives in sandy, open deserts with sparse vegetation. Hoffmeister and Lee (1967), Hall (1981), Patton (1993b), and Williams et al. (1993) considered both eremicus and atrodorsalis subspecies of C. penicillatus.  Lee et al. (1996) elevated eremicus to species status, with atrodorsalis a subspecies, based on mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence and the previously recognized sharply divergent karyotypes (Patton, 1969a) and allozyme differences (Patton et al., 1981).    
Rodentia Heteromyidae Hispid Pocket Mouse Chaetodipus hispidus   Great Plains from southern North Dakota to southeastern Arizona and western Louisiana (USA), south to Tamaulipas and Hidalgo (Mexico).   320 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in grassy areas in plains and deserts, usually on sandy soils. Revised by Glass (1947); subspecies listed by Hall (1981) and Williams et al. (1993).  Reviewed by Paulson (1988b, Mammalian Species No. 320).  Type species of monotypic subgenus Burtognathus Hoffmeister.  Does not hop as much as other pocket mice. Active year-round, relying on stored seeds in winter in northern part of range. Found in sandy or loose soils with scattered bushes.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Rock Pocket Mouse Chaetodipus intermedius   Southcentral Utah and Arizona to western Texas, south to central Sonora and central Chihuahua, Mexico. 1180, 1181   Lower Risk (lc)     Habitat is rock ledges, steep rocky ravines, boulders or gravelly slopes, with sparse, shrubby vegetation; avoids areas of extensive sand or silt. Subspecies listed by Hoffmeister (1974), Hall (1981), and Williams et al. (1993).  Burrow entrances are usually near or under rocks. Inactive (torpid) November-February. Found in rocks & boulders.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Nelson's Pocket Mouse Chaetodipus nelsoni   Chihuahuan desert plateau from southeastern New Mexico and western Texas to Jalisco and San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 1321 484 Lower Risk (lc)     Habitat is rocky slopes or gravel flats with sotol cactus and scattered shrubs. Active year-round. Breeds in spring and early summer; litter size is 2-4. Found associated with rocks.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Plains Pocket Mouse Perognathus flavescens   Great Plains and intermountain basins from Minnesota and northern Utah (USA) to N Chihuahua (Mexico). 694, 1337 525 Lower Risk (lc)   Eats seeds of grass, sedge, forbs and corn; also eats insects and tree seeds. Habitat is sand dunes and sandy washes in grasslands and sagebrush; also edges of agricultural areas and open stands of conifers. Reviewed by Williams (1978b).  Hoffmeister (1986) considered apache a distinct species.  Subspecies reviewed by Williams et al. (1993).  Will climb vegetation when foraging. Found in sandy soils & sparse vegetation.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Silky Pocket Mouse Perognathus flavus   Southwestern Great Plains and intermountain plateaus from South Dakota, eastern Wyoming, and southeastern Utah (USA) south to Sonora and Puebla (Mexico). 562, 1182, 1338 471 Lower Risk (nt) as P. f. goodpasteri; otherwise Lower Risk (lc).   Mostly sifts through sand for small seeds, but may climb stalks to harvest green seeds. Lives in dry grasslands and deserts, almost always with some grassy cover and sparse shrubs. Revised by Baker (1954); subspecies listed by Hall (1981) and reviewed by Williams et al. (1993).  Wilson (1973) considered merriami conspecific, but Anderson (1972) Lee and Engstrom (1991) documented species distinctness of merriami from flavus (see below).  Reviewed by Best and Skupski (1994a, Mammalian Species No. 471). Found in rocky or sandy soils  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Merriam's Pocket Mouse Perognathus merriami   Southeastern New Mexico east to south Texas (USA), east from northern Chihuahua to Tamaulipas (Mexico). 1246 473 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in dry grassland and deserts with short sparse vegetation; found on sand gravel and hard-packed soils. Synonymized with flavus by Wilson (1973), but Lee and Engstrom (1991) considered merriami a separate species based on biochemical genetics, as did Anderson (1972) using morphological criteria.  Reviewed by Best and Skupski (1994b, Mammalian Species No. 473).  Similar to Silky Pocket Mouse. Breeds March-December; litter size is 3-6. Found in gravelly or sandy soils & sparse vegetation.  
Rodentia Muridae House Mouse Mus musculus Lower risk Every state in the United States. 92, 754             Lives in close association with humans. Has spread along water courses & into fields.  
Rodentia Muridae Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus Lower risk Scattered across the United States but very scarce, in not absent, from the Rocky Mountains (might looks this way because of sampling effort). 755, 756, 757, 758             Lives in close association with humans. Love garbage.  
Rodentia Muridae Roof Rat Rattus rattus Lower risk Distributed around the outside of the country.  Not many records of this species being collected in the interior of the country (this might be because of sampling effort). 759, 760             Lives in close association with humans.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Black-tailed prairie dog Cynomys ludovicianus Decreasing Montana south to eastern Nebraska, western Texas, New Mexico, and southeast Arizona. 105 535 Least concern       was extirpated in AZ, reintroduced to Las Cienegas National Preserve Large, chunky ground squirrel with a short tail. Sociable; live in towns w/ many burrows.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans   Eastern half f the United States from southern Canada to Florida. 1021, 1022 78 Least concern       subspecies G. v. saturates occurs throughout; G. v. texensis possibly occurs in extreme SW corner; G. v. volans possibly occurs in extreme northern counties Small with gliding membrane connecting front & back legs. Primarily nocturnal.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus   Great Plains, from central Texas to eastern Utah, Ohio, and south central Canada. 103, 573 103 Least concern         Small with (usually) 13 alternating dark (w/spots) & light stripes  
Rodentia Sciuridae Rock squirrel Otospermophilus variegatus   Nevada to southwestern Texas and Utah to Puebla. 951 272 Least concern         Large, rather bushy-tailed ground squirrel. Can climb trees  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis   Eastern Texas north to Saskatchewan Canada and east to the Atlantic Coast. 94, 95 480 Least concern       subspecies is S. c. carolinensis Medium sized tree squirrel  
Rodentia Sciuridae Spotted ground squirrel Xerospermophilus spilosoma   South central United States; western Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, south central South Dakota, southwestern Wyoming, western Colorado, much of New Mexico, eastern Arizona, and extreme southeastern Utah.   101 Least concern         Small with spots on back, but not in rows  
Carnivora Canidae Eastern Coyote Canis latrans Common Throughout continental US. 265 (C), 1126, 1127 (B), 1267 79         Larger than western coyote. Slide symbol: B -specialized behavior; C -Close-up of head region. Expanded their range into that of wolves  
Carnivora Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Common Throughout the US except in the southwest. 435 (W), 436 (Y), 582 537         This species helps keep small mammal populations in check; white tail tip. Slide symbol: W -- female with young; Y -- young, may be newborn. Introduced for sport around 1895.  
Carnivora Canidae Kit Fox Vulpes macrotis Common Southwestern US. 269, 1208 (B) 123         Smallest North American canid.  Large ears and black tail tip.    
Carnivora Canidae Swift Fox Vulpes velox Common Eastern WY, eastern CO, eastern NM, western SD, western NE, western KS, OK, and TX. 583 122       desert Similar to kit fox, with longer tail and larger ears.  Prefers more arid habitats. The smallest American fox. Live in arid areas. Easily trapped & poisoned; their numbers are declining.  
Carnivora Canidae Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Common Nationwide except for the northwest. 584 189         Black dorsal stripe on tail; climbs trees. Lives in wooded areas. In western part of range they are found at higher elevations. They often climb trees. May move into areas when coyotes are eliminated.  
Carnivora Ursidae Black Bear Ursus americanus Common Northeast, Great Lakes region, Appalachians, Arkansas and west; Alaska and northern Canada but absent in Nevada and Great Plains.  Southern distributions spotty into Mexico. 142 (C),1132 (S) 647         Usually not aggressive. Adults climb trees.   Black color most common, cinnamon and white phases also exist. Slide symbol: C -- Close-up of head region. S -- skull.  Former statewide distribution has declined as human population expanded.  
Carnivora Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Common Southwestern Canada, everywhere south of Canada/US border to South America except arid desert areas of southwest US and northwest Mexico. 1348 570         Prefers rodents, but feeds on a broad array of small vertebrates.  Agile swimmer.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, but not southern populations. Range similar to pocket gophers & ground squirrels (their food). Also eat rats, rabbits, insects & birds  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Mink Neovison vison Common Alaska and contiguous 48 states, except for arid west and southwest. 1129 608         Though taken for their fur, ranched mink have relieved the pressure on wild ones.  Mink eat crayfish, fish, frogs, and small rodents along with any other animals they can capture and kill. Live along waterways. Their den is usually a hole in a bank or behind a pile of debris in a stream.  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Badger Taxidea taxus Common within range Western and central North America, from central Canada to central Mexico. 701 (C), 702 (A), 703 (H) 26         Because of their secretive and fossorial (digging) habits badgers are not often seen.  Persecuted by humans, though sometimes inadvertently when taking poisoned meat meant for wolves and coyotes. Slide symbol: C -- Close-up of head region. A -- anatomical specialization. H -- habitat or sign of animals activity. Dig with large front claws; they feed on burrowing animals.  
Carnivora Mustelidae Northern River Otter Lontra canadensis Common in the northern part of its range, uncommon to extirpated in southern parts of its range. Alaska and most of the continental US except for much of the southwestern continental US. 802 (A), 859 (W) 587         Playful, likes to slide on the snow.  Eats fish and other aquatic or amphibious animals. Slide symbol: A -- anatomical specialization. W -- female with young.  Aquatic (including slightly salty & marsh water), but easily run on land. Playful; make slides on riverbanks.  
Carnivora Mephitidae Western Spotted Skunk Spilogale gracilis Unknown Western continental US.   674         Other than what is known about skunks in general, not much is known about this species specifically. Often associated with rocky bluffs, cliffs, and stream banks; often found close to people.  
Carnivora Mephitidae Eastern Spotted Skunk Spilogale putorius Unknown Central and southeastern continental US.   511         Other than what is known about skunks in general, not much is known about this species specifically. Usually found in wooded areas and tall grass prairies. Musk can be squirted 4 to 5 m.  
Carnivora Mephitidae Hooded Skunk Mephitis macroura Uncommon Narrow band in southern Arizona and southern Texas. 281 686         Similar to striped skunk in appearance, with more white over head, neck, and back.  Shares its range with other skunks. More common in Mexico. Often associated with stream banks and washes  
Carnivora Mephitidae Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Common Throughout continental US except a small area in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 280 173         Sometimes de-scented and kept as pets (not recommended).  Good "mouser" and will use cat litter boxes. Found in woods, brushy areas & farms. May live in family groups. Eat small animals including insects; also eggs.  
Carnivora Mephitidae Eastern Hog-nosed Skunk Conepatus leuconotus Threatened Gulf Coast of Texas.   827         Large skunk with a single broad stripe over head, neck, and back.  Could soon be endangered. Range extends into Mexico. Found in oak & mesquite brushland and semi-open grassland.  
Carnivora Procyonidae Ringtail, Bassarisk, or Cacomistle Bassariscus astutus Common Southwestern US from the Gulf of Mexico to the west coast. 858 327         Nocturnal and seldom seen.  Good climber of rocks and trees.  Solitary and territorial, but can be densely populated in good habitat. Often found in rocky areas. Eat small animals including insects; also eat fruits & berries.  
Carnivora Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor Common Common throughout US except portions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. 140, 709 (S) 119         Raccoons are extremely adaptable and can live in a wide range of temperatures.  They are found virtually anywhere there is water.  Their diet is extremely varied including plant and animal material.  The forefeet of raccoons end in highly sensitive hand-l Slide symbol: S -- skull. Most common in woodlands and near water. Omnivorous.  
Carnivora Procyonidae White-nosed Coati Nasua narica Rare in Texas and New Mexico, but common in areas of Arizona. Common in Mexico, the coati sometimes crosses into Texas and New Mexico.  Inhabits small portion of southern Arizona. 139, 926 (FY) 487         Females and young are very social, males are solitary. Slide symbol: F -- female, when sexes differ. Y -- young, may be newborn. More common in Mexico and Central America. Omnivorous. Often active in mornings and evenings.  
Carnivora Felidae Mountain Lion, Puma, or Cougar Puma concolor Stable in the western, Endangered in Florida. Western contiguous US, small population in Florida. 275, 276, 586           Cougars are active mainly at dusk, night, and dawn.  Most of their prey consists of larger animals such as ungulates, but turtles, rabbit-sized animals, coyotes, and other cougars are taken.  The name "concolor" comes from the even coloration that differs Also called Pumas & Cougars. Primary prey = deer, but also eat rabbits, prairie dogs and other small animals. People hunt them when they eat livestock.  
Carnivora Felidae Ocelot Leopardus pardalis Endangered Coastal areas of Mexico, extending into Arizona in the west and Texas in the east. 125 (C), 1571 548         This house cat  sized beauty has been over hunted for its fur, which is marked with streaks and spots to help conceal it in shady, vegetated areas where it sleeps during the day.  It feeds on large invertebrates and small vertebrates, rodents usually bein Slide symbol: C -- Close-up of head region. Found in chaparral thickets. Their habitat extends southward into the tropics.  
Carnivora Felidae Jaguarundi Herpailurus yaguarondi Widespread but rare, threatened in Mexico. Found mainly in Latin America, but range barely extends into southern Texas and Arizona. 1294 (A), 1570 578         Like the cougar but much smaller, this cat is mainly one color.  Usually crepuscular, these cats are probably more crepuscular than other North American felines.  Still, because they are very secretive and prefer habitats with dense vegetation, they are s Slide symbol: A -- anatomical specialization. Live in dense thorny thickets. Their habitat extends southward into the tropics.  
Carnivora Felidae Bobcat Lynx rufus Rare or common, depending on geographic region. All of contiguous US, except for parts of California, Utah, Colorado,  agricultural areas of the midwest and coastal areas of the midAtlantic states. 819, 1293 563         As with the Canada lynx, bobcats are very secretive and seldom observed even in areas it occupies.  Slightly smaller than the lynx, it is capable of taking adult white-tailed deer.  Though mainly a carnivore,  areas a large array of plant and animal mater Mostly found in rocky areas, but also in open areas & forests. Often found near humans. Eat mainly small mammals & birds.  
Carnivora Felidae Jaguar Panthera onca Endangered in US Arizona and New Mexico in the west, Texas in the east. 795 340         Largest cat in North America.  Though they resemble leopards, African and Asian cats, they are a different species.  Both species have individuals with a black color through which the black spots (rosettes) often shine. Live in dense brushland and forested areas. The last records are from around 1900. Their habitat extends southward into the tropics.  
Artiodactyla Tayassuidae Collared Peccary Pecari tajacu Common South Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. 200, 325, 794,1315       Feed on cactus, nuts, fruit, seasonal forbs, and crops     Also called Javelinas. Live in brushy arid areas; eat cacti and so improve rangeland.  
Artiodactyla Cervidae Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus Common Southern Alaska to central Mexico, east across US and Canada to South Dakota Nebraska, Kansas, and western Texas.   219           Noted for their bouncing gait. Found in arid areas and sparsely wooded areas. Introduced into several areas. Hybridize with white-tailed deer which seem to be displacing them. May also be harmed by non-native Barbary Sheep.  
Artiodactyla Cervidae White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Common Throughout North America, except northern Canada and very arid areas of western US. 1313 388           The most important big game animals in Texas.  
Artiodactyla Antilocapridae Pronghorn Antelope Antilocapra americana Common West-central US with some extensions across the border with Canada and some ranging into central Mexico. 166, 717,718, 823, 1310 90       Open areas   Former range was the western two-thirds of the state. Requires habitat where it can see and run long distances. Do not compete well with sheep  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Southern short-tailed shrew Blarina carolinensis Least concern Southeastern corner of the United States.  Occurs as far west as eastern Texas and eastern Arkansas; as far north as southern Missouri and southern Illinoios; south to central Florida; north to southern Virginia.  Distribution does not extend far into Appalachian mountains. 20, 644 673           More social than most shrews; slightly venomous  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Elliot's short-tailed shrew Blarina hylophaga Least concern Southern Nebraska and southwestern Iowa south to southern Texas; east to Missouri and northwestern Arkansas; eastern Oklahoma and most of Kansas; extending into northern Louisiana.   878           slightly venomous  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Least shrew Cryptotis parva Least concern Concentrated in the southwestern United States.  From Florida up to New York and reaches as far west as Texas and South Dakota. 957 43           Sociable; prefers grasslands  
Artiodactyla Bovidae Bighorn Sheep Ovis canadensis Common in historic range Mountainous and hilly areas of the western contiguous US and southern Canada. 168, 169, 307, 941 230           The last native sheep was seen in the Van Horn Mts. in 1959. Reintroductions have been very recent. Habitat = rough, rocky mountains with sparse vegetation.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous US and Alaska 39, 223 356 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Eptesicini Trees, bldgs, caves, crevices. Slow flight near treetops  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis Lower Risk (lc) Central and eastern United States 40, 655, 815 183 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini Migratory; present in summer; maybe year-round in E. TX. Roosts in tree foliage  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous United States and Hawaii 656, 041, 042 185 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini; *Status is Low Risk eith the exception of L. c. semotus Migratory; roosts on twigs or branches; emerges late  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Southern Yellow Bat Lasiurus ega Lower Risk (lc) Extreme southwest and southern tip of Texas 1537 515 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini Roosts in palms & other trees  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Northern Yellow Bat Lasiurus intermedius Lower Risk (lc) Southeast United States and southeast Texas   132 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini Roosts in Spanish Moss, Palms  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Seminole Bat Lasiurus seminolus Lower Risk (lc) Florida and Texas to Oklahoma and Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York   280 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini Roosts in Spanish Moss, Oaks, Hickory, Pines  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Evening Bat Nycticeius humeralis Lower Risk (lc) Southern tip of Texas to Nebraska, the Great Lakes area, and Pennsylvania south to Florida and the Gulf Coast 232 23 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Nycticeiini Hollow trees, bldgs. Forage in early evenings & just before dawn  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Canyon Bat Parastrellus hesperus Lower Risk (lc) Arid west and southwestern United States     Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Pipistrellini Crevices, caves. Flies early; often also seen in early morning  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Pipistrelle Perimyotis subflavus Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States excluding Maine and southern Florida 38, 654 228 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Pipistrellini Caves, crevices, bldgs. Flies early. More associated with forests than W. Pipistrelle  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat Corynorhinus rafinesquii Vulnerable Southeastern United States 394 69 Vulnerable       TRIBE Plecotini; *Status is Vulnerable as Plecotus rafinesquii Hollow trees, behind bark, among leaves; found in areas without caves  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Townsend's Big-eared bat Corynorhinus townsendii Vulnerable Western United States, east to the Rocky Mountains, a few scattered populations in the eastern United States 229 175 Vulnerable       TRIBE Plecotini; *Status is Vulnerable as Plecotus townsendii; Endangered as P. ingens and P. virginianus Caves, mines, old bldgs. Hibernate in tight clusters  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Spotted Bat Euderma maculatum Lower Risk (lc) Rocky Mountain area of the United States from Idaho to the western tip of Texas 734 77 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Plecotini Possibly roosts in rocks  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Allen's Big-eared Bat Idionycteris phyllotis Lower Risk (lc) Southern Utah and Nevada into Arizona and New Mexico   208 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Plecotini    
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Pallid Bat Antrozous pallidus Lower Risk (lc) Semi-arid Western United States, east to western edge of Kansas 230 213 Lower Risk (lc)         Crevices, caves, old bldgs. Fly well after dark. Often feed on the ground  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the United States except extreme southern protions of southern states.  Also occurs in southeastern Alaska. 658 172 Lower Risk (lc)         Migrant. Hollow trees, behind bark, bldgs. Flies late.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Southeastern Myotis Myotis austroriparius Lower Risk (lc) Southeastern United States including Florida, north to Indiana and North Carolina, west to Texas and sooutheastern Oklahoma   332 Lower Risk (lc)         Caves, bldgs, bridges, culverts  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Californian Myotis Myotis californicus Lower Risk (lc) Southern Alaska panhandle, western United States from Washington to western tip of Texas   428 Lower Risk (lc)         Crevices, shallow caves, houses  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Western Small-footed Bat Myotis ciliolabrum Lower Risk (lc) Much of the western United States   670 Lower Risk (lc)         Crevices, caves, behind bark, houses  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Lower Risk (lc) Most of US, except Texas to Nebraska, and extreme southern portions of southern states 224, 225, 814 142 Lower Risk (lc)         Crevices, caves, houses  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Dark-nosed Small-footed Myotis Myotis melanorhinus Not evaluated Washington to western Oklahoma, extending southwest to the western tip of Texas     Not evaluated            
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Arizona Myotis Myotis occultus Not evaluated Southern California to Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado, possibly western Texas     Not evaluated            
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Indiana Myotis Myotis sodalis Endangered New Hampshire to Florida panhandle, west to Wisconsin and Oklahoma 391 163 Endangered            
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Fringed Myotis Myotis thysanodes Lower Risk (lc) Western tip of Texas to southwestern South Dakota and west to coast   137 Lower Risk (lc)         Migratory. Large colonies. Caves, crevices, bldgs  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Cave Myotis Myotis velifer Lower Risk (lc) Central and southwestern Texas, southeastern New Mexico and Arizona, Texas panhandle and central Oklahoma and Kansas   149 Lower Risk (lc)         Largest Myotis in TX. Hibernates in large cave colonies; roosts in caves, bldgs, bridges, old cliff swallow nests  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Long-legged Myotis Myotis volans Lower Risk (lc) Alaska panhandle to California, east to western tip of Texas and western North Dakota   224 Lower Risk (lc)         Bldgs., crevices, hollow trees. Probably do not use caves.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Yuma Myotis Myotis yumanensis Lower Risk (lc) California north to Washington, east to Montana and western Texas     Lower Risk (lc)         Arid regions. Caves, mines, bldgs.  
Chiroptera Phyllostomidae Hairy-legged Vampire Bat Diphylla ecaudata Lower Risk (nt) One report from Southern Texas 349 227 Lower Risk (nt)         Caves & hollow trees; not colonial  
Chiroptera Phyllostomidae Mexican Long-tongued Bat Choeronycteris mexicana Lower Risk (nt) Southern California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico; a single record from southern Texas   291 Lower Risk (nt)       TRIBE Glossophagini Caves & bldgs; eats fruit, nectar, pollen & probably insects  
Chiroptera Phyllostomidae Mexican Long-nosed Bat Leptonycteris nivalis Endangered Southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and western Texas   307 Endangered       TRIBE Glossophagini Cave-dwelling; feeds on agave nectar & pollen  
Chiroptera Molossidae Greater Bonneted Bat Eumops perotis Lower Risk (lc) California to Texas   534 Lower Risk (lc)         High crevices in arid areas  
Chiroptera Molossidae Pocketed Free-tailed Bat Nyctinomops femorosaccus Lower risk (lc) Southwestern Texas to New Mexico, Arizona, California   349 Lower Risk (lc)         Arid areas. Caves, crevices, roofs  
Chiroptera Molossidae Big Free-tailed Bat Nyctinomops macrotis Lower risk (lc) Southern and western Texas to southern California; southern Nevada, Utah and Colorado; reported from Iowa and Kansas 891 351 Lower Risk (lc)         Crevices, buildings. Fly late  
Chiroptera Molossidae Brazilian/Mexican Free-tailed Bat Tadarida brasiliensis Lower Risk (nt) From Oregon to North Carolina and south 1549 331 Lower Risk (nt)         Migratory; year-round in E. TX. Caves, trees, bldgs. A large colony under an Austin bridge attracts tourists  
Chiroptera Mormoopidae Peter's Ghost-faced Bat Mormoops megalophylla Lower risk (lc) Southern Texas, southern New Mexico, and southern Arizona 357, 1401 448 Lower Risk (lc)         Cave-dwelling  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Black-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus californicus Lower risk Hidalgo and southern Queretaro to northern Sonora and Baja California, Mexico; north to southwestern Oregon and central Washington, southern Idaho, eastern Colorado, southern South Dakota, western Missouri, and northwestern Arkansas. Apparently isolated population in southwestern Montana. 060, 245, 1347 530       Sagebrush flats, overgrazed pastures and rangelands, deserts, prairies and agricultural lands. Nocturnal or crepuscular; rests by day in a shallow soil depression, usually in the shade of a bush. Uses speed and agility to avoid predators; usually solitary, but may be seen in pairs or larger groups. Associated with dry areas  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Swamp Rabbit Sylvilagus aquaticus Lower Risk Southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana, southwestern Missouri to southeastern Kansas southward through extreme western Kentucky and western Tennessee to eastern Oklahoma, eastern Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and NW South Carolina.   151       Swamps, marshes and bottomlands. Active at dawn and in the late afternoon in spring and summer, mostly nocturnal in winter. Swims well, unlike most rabbits; very territorial. Largest cottontail; found in coastal areas, stream & river banks, floodplains  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Desert Rabbit Sylvilagus audubonii Lower Risk Northeastern Puebla and western Veracruz, Mexico, to north central Montana and southwestern North Dakota, north central Utah, central Nevada, and northcentral California, south to Baja California and central Sinaloa, Mexico. 059, 1188, 1858 106       Habitat is varied, maily in dry lowlands including deserts, grasslands, riparian brush and pinon-juniper woodlands. Most active soon after dawn or at dusk. Retreats from heat of day into burrows made by another species or a shady thicket. Medium-sized cottontail; found in grasslands, brush & desert  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Eastern Cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Lower Risk Northern, central, and western Venezuela and adjacent islands and adjacent Colombia through Central America (disjunct in part); to northwestern Mexico, Arizona, north and east to North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Michigan, New York and Massachusetts, Atlantic Coast south and Florida Gulf Coast west to Mexico; also southern Saskatchewan, southern Ontario and south central Quebec, Canada. 058, 953 136       Thickets and old fields, edges of hardwood forest, farmland, prairies and swamps. One of most familiar rabbits, mainly nocturnal but may be active and dawns or dusk. Sleeps under brush piles or in thickets or dense grass. Moderately large cottontail; ears shorter than Desert Cottontail. Associated with brushy cover  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Robust Cottontail Sylvilagus robustus Not evaluated, likely endangered Chisos, Davis and Guadalupe Mountains of Texas and New Mexico, and Sierra de la Madera of adjacent Coahuila, Mexico. Perhaps also in the Sierra del Carmen.                  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Crawford's grey shrew Notiosorex crawfordi Least concern Southwestern andsouthcentral United States to Baja California.   17              
Soricomorpha Talpidae Eastern mole Scalopus aquaticus Least concern Throughout south eastern United States north to Massachussetts to Minnesota. 647, 648 105         Throws up large molehills when excavating deep tunnels. Makes shallow burrows for feeding that may be used only once or may be used for several years. Preferes fields or woods with soft moist soils. Burrows in moist, sandy soil  
Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana least concern found everywhere except NV, MT, UT, ND, SD, WI, MN, WY 3, 4, 630, 828, 829, 830 40         Nocturnal, introduced to the western states in the early 1900s Usually solitary, nocturnal  
Cingulata Dasypodidae     Range has spread north & east since 1900 Nine-banded Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus least concern NM, CO, TX, OK, NE, KS, MO, AR, LA, TN, MS, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC 53, 242 162         always born in litters of 4 identical (same sex) quadruplets Range has spread north & east since 1900  
Rodentia Erethizontidae Common Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum common   82, 870 29         active throughout year Found in forested & rocky areas. Can climb trees. Range may be expanding southward  
Rodentia Myocastoridae Nutria Myocastor coypus common   1019 398         semiaquatic Natural home = South America. Make nests of large piles of cattails, reeds, & sedges; often destroy habitat for other wildlife.  
Cetacea Delphinidae Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus Data deficient Worldwide: temperate to tropical waters, including the Black Sea 262     no carnivore aquatic, marine Attracted to boats and often bow-rides or travels at the stern. Sometimes acrobatic when feeding. Habitat is coastal, shelf and offshore waters, with separate populations in inshore and pelagic waters.