Mammals of Pennsylvania

Order

Family

Common Name

Species Name

Status

Distribution

Mammal Image Library #s

Mammalian Species #

IUCN Status

Introduced

Diet

Biome

Notes

PA Notes

PA Citations

Rodentia Muridae Meadow Vole Microtus pennsylvanicus U.S. ESA - Endangered as M. p. dukecampbelli; IUCN - Vulnerable as M. p. dukecampbelli, Lower Risk (nt) as M. p. admiraltiae, M. p. kincaidi, M. p. provectus and M. p. shattucki, not evaluated as M. p. chihuahuensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Meadowlands interspersed across boreal and mixed coniferous-deciduous biomes of North America: C Alaska to Labrador, including Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, Canada; south in Rocky Mountains to N New Mexico, in Great Plains to N Kansas, and in Appalachians and along eastern seaboard to N Georgia and South Carolina; outlier populations in W New Mexico and peninsular Florida, and in N Chihuahua, Mexico 70 159         Active night or day; swims well but cannot climb. Highly prolific: breeds March-November or year-round; litter size is about 6; one female can have 17 litters per year (in captivity). Aggressive when caught, does not hesitate to bite. Habitat is damp meadows, roadsides, orchards and other areas with a thick cover of lush grass.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae Woodland Vole Microtus pinetorum Lower Risk Temperate deciduous forest zone of E USA - eastern shoreline from S Maine to NC Florida, west to C Wisconsin and E Texas; isolated population on the Edwards Plateau, C Texas, may be extinct   147         Mainly subterranean; makes burrows under leaf litter or in shallow soil, only emerging to race to another burrow. Lives in small family groups and is usually monogamous. Habitat is deciduous forest with thick leaf litter, grassy patches in woodlands or orchards and dense brush. Favors areas with sandy soils.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae Allegheny Woodrat Neotoma magister Lower Risk Allegheny Mountains, E USA, along a southwesterly tract from extreme SE New York and NW New Jersey to N Alabama and NW Georgia; isolated pockets in S Indiana and S Ohio   789         Unlike most woodrats, does not make large houses but builds a large, cup shaped nest on a rock ledge or under boulders. Litter size is 1-4; females may have 3-4 litters per year. Habitat is closely associated with rocky habitats such as cliffs, rockslides and caves, often near red cedar.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae Common Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Data Deficient as O. z. ripensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) North America, north to the tree line, including Newfoundland; south to the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande and lower Colorado River valleys. Introduced to Czech Republic in 1905 and now widespread in the Palearctic, including C and N Europe, most of Ukraine, Russia and Siberia, adjacent parts of Mongolia and scattered through China, NE Korea, and Honshu Island, Japan; also into southernmost Argentina 1162, 1163 141         Mainly nocturnal, but also active on overcast or rainy days; more likely to be seen by day than other large semiaquatic rodents. Swims well and is more buoyant than a beaver. Habitat is shallow marshes with abundant cattails; less common along streams or in wooded swamps.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae Coues' Oryzomys Oryzomys couesi Lower Risk Extreme S Texas; Mexico, excluding NC plateau region, south through most of Central America, to NW Colombia; including Jamaica, Isla Cozumel, and allopatric populations in S Baja California Sur and WC Sonora             Semi-aquatic; swims well and usually dives into water if disturbed. Sometimes seen at night swimming in deep water at some distance from land. Lives in cattail and bulrush marshes, wet grassy areas near oxbow lakes in Texas; brackish or fresh water. Found in other habitats farther south, but almost always near water.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae Southern Red-backed Vole Clethrionomys gapperi Data Deficient as M. g. solus, Lower Risk (nt) as C. g. maurus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Most of Canada from N British Columbia to Labrador, excluding Newfoundland; south in the Appalachians to N Georgia and NW South Carolina, in the Great Plains to N Iowa, and in the Rockies to C New Mexico and EC Arizona; extralimital isolates in NW and E Pennsylvania and S New Jersey 69 146?         Active at any time, but tends to be more diurnal in winter and mainly nocturnal in summer. Travels under leaf litter and fallen logs but does not construct an underground burrow system. Lives in damp forests with fallen logs, also mountain meadows, clear-cuts and bogs.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae Rock Vole Microtus chrotorrhinus Data Deficient as M. c. ravus, Lower Risk (nt) as M. c. carolinensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) S Labrador south through S Quebec and Ontario, Canada, to NE Minnesota, N New York and N New England states; isolated segments in the C and S Appalachian Mountains 250 180         Travels around and under mossy rocks. Eats bunchberry and other green plants and may cache food under rocks. Prefers rocky areas in cool moist hardwood or mixed forests; often found near streams.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae White-footed Deermouse Peromyscus leucopus Data Deficient as P. l. ammodytes, otherwise Lower Risk S Alberta to S Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, Canada; throughout much of C and E USA, excluding Florida; southwards to N Durango and along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec and NW Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico 73, 251, 1174 247         Mainly terrestrial, but climbs well and may forage or nest well above the ground. Swims well, occupies many islands in lakes. Habitat is deciduous and mixed forests, hedgerows, brushy areas, croplands and dry semidesert regions in the Southwest.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae North American Deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus Lower Risk (nt) as P. m. anacapae and P. m. clemintis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Panhandle of Alaska and across N Canada, south through most of continental USA, excluding the SE and E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico; including many land bridge islands 74, 1175           Woodland forms climb very well and are semi-arboreal. Feeds on seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi and other foods; stores excess in caches. Occupies almost every habitat type, from boreal forest and tundra to desert, prairies, swamps and high mountains.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae Southern Bog Lemming Synaptomys cooperi Extinct as S. c. paludis and S. c. relictus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Midwestern and E USA through SE Canada, including Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island; as far south as W North Carolina and NE Arkansas; outlying populations in SW Kansas, W Nebraska, and the Dismal Swamp region of SE Virginia-NE North Carolina 682 210         Mainly nocturnal, sometimes active by day. Eats mostly grass and sedges, also some fungi, berries and moss. Lives in colonies of 3-30. Habitat is variable, but usually in or near green grass and sedge; found around sphagnum bogs, in dense woodlands, spruce-fir forest and in dry bluegrass fields.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Geomyidae Camas Pocket Gopher Thomomys bulbivorous Lower risk Willamette Valley, northwestern Oregon   273             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Geomyidae Western Pocket Gopher Thomomys mazama US ESA - Candidate; IUCN - Extinct as T. m. tacomensis; Critically Endangered as T. m. louiei; Vulnerable as T. m. couchi, T. m. glacialis, T. m. pugetensis, T. m. tumuli, and T. m. yelmensis; Lower Risk as T. mazama and as T. m. helleri and T. m. melanop Northwestern Washington through central Oregon to northern California . 1319 641             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Geomyidae Northern Pocket Gopher Thomomys talpoides Vulnerable as T. t. douglasii, Lower Risk as T. t. limosus and T. t. segregatus, otherwise Lower Risk. Southern British Columbia to central Alberta and southwestern Manitoba, Canada, south to central South Dakota and northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, northern Nevada, and northeastern California.   618 X           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Geomyidae Townsend's Pocket Gopher Thomomys townsendii Lower risk Snake River Valley of Idaho south and west to southeastern Oregon, northeastern California, and northern Nevada.   719             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern fox squirrel Sciurus niger   Texas north to Manitoba, east to the Atlantic Coast. 96, 880, 1644, 1645 479   introduced population         Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus   Eastern United States; Louisiana north to southern Manitoba and Nova Scotia east to the Atlantic Coast. 110, 259 168 Least concern           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Sciuridae North American red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus   Alaska and throughout Canada; northeastern United States, south to northwestern South Carolina. 111, 260, 826, 827 586 Least concern           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae House Mouse Mus musculus Lower risk Every state in the United States. 92, 754               Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Muridae Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus Lower risk Scattered across the United States but very scarce, in not absent, from the Rocky Mountains (might looks this way because of sampling effort). 755, 756, 757, 758               Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Sciuridae Northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus   Alaska and Canada, northwestern United States to southern California and western South Dakota, northeastern United States to southern Appalachian Mountains. 1020 229 Least concern           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Sciuridae Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans   Eastern half f the United States from southern Canada to Florida. 1021, 1022 78 Least concern       subspecies G. v. saturates occurs throughout; G. v. texensis possibly occurs in extreme SW corner; G. v. volans possibly occurs in extreme northern counties   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Sciuridae Woodchuck Marmota monax   From eastern Oklahoma, northern Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia north to Canada over to Alaska and possibly south into northern Idaho. 107 591 Least concern           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis   Eastern Texas north to Saskatchewan Canada and east to the Atlantic Coast. 94, 95 480 Least concern       subspecies is S. c. carolinensis   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Canidae Eastern Coyote Canis latrans Common Throughout continental US. 265 (C), 1126, 1127 (B), 1267 79         Larger than western coyote.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Common Throughout the US except in the southwest. 435 (W), 436 (Y), 582 537         This species helps keep small mammal populations in check; white tail tip.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Canidae Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Common Nationwide except for the northwest. 584 189         Black dorsal stripe on tail; climbs trees.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Ursidae Black Bear Ursus americanus Common Northeast, Great Lakes region, Appalachians, Arkansas and west; Alaska and northern Canada but absent in Nevada and Great Plains.  Southern distributions spotty into Mexico. 142 (C),1132 (S) 647         Usually not aggressive. Adults climb trees.   Black color most common, cinnamon and white phases also exist.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mustelidae Fisher Martes pennanti Common Southern Canada to northeastern and midwestern US. 590 (C) 156         Larger and less arboreal than martens.  Successfully preys on porcupines.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mustelidae Ermine or Short-tailed Weasel Mustela erminea Common All of Canada, northeastern US, Great Lakes region, northwestern US. 588 (P), 1051 (P) 195         Color varies seasonally, mainly eats rodents and young rabbits, as well as small vertebrates and invertebrates.  Nocturnal.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Common Southwestern Canada, everywhere south of Canada/US border to South America except arid desert areas of southwest US and northwest Mexico. 1348 570         Prefers rodents, but feeds on a broad array of small vertebrates.  Agile swimmer.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, but not southern populations.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mustelidae Least Weasel Mustela nivalis Common Alaska, Midwest, Great Lakes, and (No Suggestions) states. 440, 1214, 1350 454         Avoids woodlands.  Active at all times of day and all times of the year.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, southern populations do not.  Females have more than one litter per year.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mustelidae American Mink Neovison vison Common Alaska and contiguous 48 states, except for arid west and southwest. 1129 608         Though taken for their fur, ranched mink have relieved the pressure on wild ones.  Mink eat crayfish, fish, frogs, and small rodents along with any other animals they can capture and kill.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mustelidae American Badger Taxidea taxus Common within range Western and central North America, from central Canada to central Mexico. 701 (C), 702 (A), 703 (H) 26         Because of their secretive and fossorial (digging) habits badgers are not often seen.  Persecuted by humans, though sometimes inadvertently when taking poisoned meat meant for wolves and coyotes.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mustelidae Northern River Otter Lontra canadensis Common in the northern part of its range, uncommon to extirpated in southern parts of its range. Alaska and most of the continental US except for much of the southwestern continental US. 802 (A), 859 (W) 587         Playful, likes to slide on the snow.  Eats fish and other aquatic or amphibious animals.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mephitidae Eastern Spotted Skunk Spilogale putorius Unknown Central and southeastern continental US.   511         Other than what is known about skunks in general, not much is known about this species specifically.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Mephitidae Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Common Throughout continental US except a small area in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 280 173         Sometimes de-scented and kept as pets (not recommended).  Good "mouser" and will use cat litter boxes.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor Common Common throughout US except portions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. 140, 709 (S) 119         Raccoons are extremely adaptable and can live in a wide range of temperatures.  They are found virtually anywhere there is water.  Their diet is extremely varied including plant and animal material.  The forefeet of raccoons end in highly sensitive hand-l   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Carnivora Felidae Bobcat Lynx rufus Rare or common, depending on geographic region. All of contiguous US, except for parts of California, Utah, Colorado,  agricultural areas of the midwest and coastal areas of the midAtlantic states. 819, 1293 563         As with the Canada lynx, bobcats are very secretive and seldom observed even in areas it occupies.  Slightly smaller than the lynx, it is capable of taking adult white-tailed deer.  Though mainly a carnivore,  areas a large array of plant and animal mater   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Artiodactyla Cervidae White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Common Throughout North America, except northern Canada and very arid areas of western US. 1313 388             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Soricidae Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda Least concern North-central and northeastern United States and adjacent provinces of southern Canada.   261             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Soricidae Least shrew Cryptotis parva Least concern Concentrated in the southwestern United States.  From Florida up to New York and reaches as far west as Texas and South Dakota. 957 43             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous US and Alaska 39, 223 356 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Eptesicini   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis Lower Risk (lc) Central and eastern United States 40, 655, 815 183 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous United States and Hawaii 656, 041, 042 185 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini; *Status is Low Risk eith the exception of L. c. semotus   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Seminole Bat Lasiurus seminolus Lower Risk (lc) Florida and Texas to Oklahoma and Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York   280 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Evening Bat Nycticeius humeralis Lower Risk (lc) Southern tip of Texas to Nebraska, the Great Lakes area, and Pennsylvania south to Florida and the Gulf Coast 232 23 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Nycticeiini   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Pipistrelle Perimyotis subflavus Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States excluding Maine and southern Florida 38, 654 228 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Pipistrellini   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Townsend's Big-eared bat Corynorhinus townsendii Vulnerable Western United States, east to the Rocky Mountains, a few scattered populations in the eastern United States 229 175 Vulnerable       TRIBE Plecotini; *Status is Vulnerable as Plecotus townsendii; Endangered as P. ingens and P. virginianus   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the United States except extreme southern protions of southern states.  Also occurs in southeastern Alaska. 658 172 Lower Risk (lc)           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Small-footed Myotis Myotis leibii Lower Risk (lc) Southern Maine, south to Georgia and west to eastern Oklahoma   547 Lower Risk (lc)           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Lower Risk (lc) Most of US, except Texas to Nebraska, and extreme southern portions of southern states 224, 225, 814 142 Lower Risk (lc)           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Northern Myotis Myotis septentrionalis Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States, eastern Montana, eastern Wyoming, south to Alabama, Georgia, and Florida panhandle 226, 227 634 Lower Risk (lc)           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Indiana Myotis Myotis sodalis Endangered New Hampshire to Florida panhandle, west to Wisconsin and Oklahoma 391 163 Endangered           Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Lagomorpha Leporidae Snowshoe Hare Lepus americanus Lower risk Southern and central Alaska to southern and central coasts of Hudson Bay to Newfoundland and Anacosti Island, Canada, south to southern Appalachians, southern Michigan, North Dakota, north central New Mexico, south central Utah, and east central California. 246, 544           Mostly nocturnal or crepuscular; shelters by day under logs or in thick vegetation. Lives in forests and dense thickets, often associated with low wet areas.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Lagomorpha Leporidae Eastern Cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Lower Risk Northern, central, and western Venezuela and adjacent islands and adjacent Colombia through Central America (disjunct in part); to northwestern Mexico, Arizona, north and east to North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Michigan, New York and Massachusetts, Atlantic Coast south and Florida Gulf Coast west to Mexico; also southern Saskatchewan, southern Ontario and south central Quebec, Canada. 058, 953 136       Thickets and old fields, edges of hardwood forest, farmland, prairies and swamps. One of most familiar rabbits, mainly nocturnal but may be active and dawns or dusk. Sleeps under brush piles or in thickets or dense grass.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Lagomorpha Leporidae Appalachian Cottontail Sylvilagus obscurus Lower Risk Northern Pennsylvania south and west along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Alabama.           Coniferous and deciduous woods with dense heaths at higher elevations. Very similar to New England Cottontail.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Soricidae Masked shrew Sorex cinereus Least concern Throughout Alaska, south through most of Washington, Idaho, central Utah and Colorado into north central New Mexico, east through most of Wyoming and Nebraska, Iowa, northern Illinois, and most of Indiana and Ohio, and south throught the Appalachian Mountains to north east Georgia and on the East Coast south to Maryland and New Jersey. 1392 743             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Soricidae Long-tailed shrew Sorex dispar Least concern Limited to the mountainous areas of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee.   155             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Soricidae Smoky shrew Sorex fumeus Least concern Northeastern United States; Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.   215             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Soricidae Water shrew Sorex palustris Least concern Southern Alaska and the northern and mountainous areas of the United States. 1287 296             Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Talpidae Star-nosed mole Condylura cristata Least concern Geogria and north west South Carolina to Nova Scotia and Labrador; Great Lakes region to south eastern Manitoba. 649, 650 129         Unlike other moles, swims well and makes tunnels leading into water; also active on or under snow. May travel on the surface. Elsewhere makes deep burrows and throws up molehills. Habitat is wet areas in meadows, woods, swamps or streams, usually in mucky   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Talpidae Hairy-tailed mole Parascalops breweri Least concern North eastern United States and south eastern Canada. 646, 852 98         At night may forage on the surface. Eats earthworms and insects, especially beetles. Habitat is deciduous and coniferous woods, old fields and roadsides with moist but light, well-drained soil.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Soricomorpha Talpidae Eastern mole Scalopus aquaticus Least concern Throughout south eastern United States north to Massachussetts to Minnesota. 647, 648 105         Throws up large molehills when excavating deep tunnels. Makes shallow burrows for feeding that may be used only once or may be used for several years. Preferes fields or woods with soft moist soils.   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana least concern found everywhere except NV, MT, UT, ND, SD, WI, MN, WY 3, 4, 630, 828, 829, 830 40         Nocturnal, introduced to the western states in the early 1900s   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press
Rodentia Erethizontidae Common Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum common   82, 870 29         active throughout year   Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania" by Joseph Merritt (1987) Univ. of PA Press