Mammals of Oregon



Common Name

Species Name



Mammal Image Library #s

Mammalian Species #

IUCN Status





OR Notes

OR Citations

Rodentia Muridae Long-tailed Vole Microtus longicaudus Data Deficient as M. l. bernardinus, M. l. coronarius, and M. l. leucophaeus, otherwise Lower Risk Rocky Mountains and adjacent foothills, from E Alaska and N Yukon, south through British Columbia and SW Alberta, Canada, to E California and W Colorado; including Pacific coastal taiga to N California; disjunct southern pockets in S California, Arizona, and New Mexico 1157 271         Usually does not make runways and leaves little sign of its presence. Eats green plant material, seeds, fruit, fungi and bark. Habitat is forests, brushy areas, clear-cuts and sagebrush; often found along rivers or streams. tend to be docile and timid  
Rodentia Muridae Montane Vole Microtus montanus Data Deficient as M. m. codiensis and M. m. zygomaticus, Vulnerable as M. m. fucosus and M. m. nevadensis, Lower Risk (nt) as M. m. arizonensis and M. m. rivularis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Cascade, Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountain ranges: SC British Columbia, Canada, south to EC California, S Utah and NC New Mexico; disjunct populations in S Nevada, EC Arizona and WC New Mexico   716         Mainly diurnal. Makes surface runways through grass but may not use runways in other types of vegetation. Habitat is damp grassland, often near streams or marshes, sometimes in low brush or dense woodlands. associated with grassy areas  
Rodentia Muridae Creeping Vole Microtus oregoni Lower Risk Moist coniferous forest seres of Pacific Northwest, from SW British Columbia, Canada, south to NW California   233         Makes tiny tunnels among grass roots and sometimes uses underground burrows. Feeds on green vegetation and fungi. Lives in forested and open areas; favors grassy clearings in forests. smallest vole in Oregon  
Rodentia Muridae North American Water Vole Microtus richardsoni Lower Risk Wet subalpine and alpine meadows of Rocky Mountains, from S British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, to W Wyoming and C Utah; and of Cascade Mountains, from SW British Columbia south through WC Oregon   223         Mainly nocturnal; spends more than half the year in tunnels under snow. Swims well and can swim against the current. Lives along streams and ponds through alpine and subalpine meadows; elevation 2,300-10,500 ft, usually above 5,000 ft. good swimmer on and below surface  
Rodentia Muridae Townsend's Vole Microtus townsendii Lower Risk (cd) as M. t. cowani, otherwise Lower Risk (nt) Wet meadows and marshes of Pacific Northwest, from extreme SW British Columbia, Canada, to NW California, USA, including Vancouver and neighboring islands   325         Active by day or night; swims well and can occupy seasonally flooded areas. Eats grass, clover and rushes. Habitat is wet fields, marshes, stream banks and other areas with dense grass; seldom found in forests. associated with moist habitats  
Rodentia Muridae Bushy-tailed Woodrat Neotoma cinerea Lower Risk SE Yukon and westernmost Northwest Territories, south through Alaskan Panhandle, British Columbia and W Alberta, Canada; in W USA, from Washington to W Dakotas as far south as EC California, S Nevada, N Arizona, and NW New Mexico 1166, 1351 564         Adapted for cool climates, using its busy tail as a wrap in cold weather; cannot survive high temperatures. Seldom constructs an elaborate house, but will accumulate mounds of sticks and other rubbish around the nest site. Lives on rocky outcrops, talus slopes, caves and cliffs, in canyons and mountainous areas. large rat-like mammal  
Rodentia Muridae Dusky-footed Woodrat Neotoma fuscipes U.S. ESA - Endangered as N. f. riparia; IUCN - Critically Endangered as N. f. riparia, Data Deficient as N. f. annectens, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Coastal and Cascade mountains, W Oregon, southwards to Inner Coastal Range, WC California and N Sierra Nevadas, EC California   386         Makes large houses, about 3 ft high, 3-7 ft wide, usually placed on the ground around the trunks of trees or in dense brush. Generations of these woodrats use the same house, increasing the size. Lives in dense chaparral, mixed deciduous forest with thick understory, coniferous forest, and coastal sage scrub. large, nearly naked eyes, protruding eyes  
Rodentia Muridae Desert Woodrat Neotoma lepida Data Deficient as N. l. intermedia, otherwise Lower Risk SE Oregon to C Utah and WC Colorado, south through Nevada, NW Arizona, and S California to S Baja California Sur, Mexico 1252 699         Obtains water from fleshy plants such as yucca and prickly pear cactus. It usually makes a stick house under one of the food plants, or may den among rocks. Lives in deserts and coastal sage scrub; favors areas with rocky outcrops and plentiful succulents. smallest member of genus in Oregon  
Rodentia Muridae Common Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Data Deficient as O. z. ripensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) North America, north to the tree line, including Newfoundland; south to the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande and lower Colorado River valleys. Introduced to Czech Republic in 1905 and now widespread in the Palearctic, including C and N Europe, most of Ukraine, Russia and Siberia, adjacent parts of Mongolia and scattered through China, NE Korea, and Honshu Island, Japan; also into southernmost Argentina 1162, 1163 141         Mainly nocturnal, but also active on overcast or rainy days; more likely to be seen by day than other large semiaquatic rodents. Swims well and is more buoyant than a beaver. Habitat is shallow marshes with abundant cattails; less common along streams or in wooded swamps. occur near water  
Rodentia Muridae Northern Grasshopper Mouse Onychomys leucogaster Data Deficient as O. l. durranti, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) S Alberta, S Saskatchewan, and SW Manitoba, Canada, south through much of Great Plains and Great Basin region of USA, to NC Sonora and N Tamaulipas, Mexico 253, 1017, 1169 87         Nocturnal; most active on dark moonless nights. Much more carnivorous than most mice, taking large scorpions and beetles and some small vertebrates; also eats seeds and plant material. Mostly very solitary. Habitat is deserts, grasslands, prairies and shrub steppe; favors areas with rather sparse vegetation and sandy soils. stockily built with thick tail  
Rodentia Muridae White-footed Vole Arborimus albipes Data Deficient Pacific coastal zone south of Columbia River, from W Oregon to extreme NW California             Apparently nocturnal and semi-arboreal, can climb to canopy height. Feeds on leaves of trees, shrubs and forbs; also eats hazel catkins and small amounts of fungi and insects. Habitat is forests; favors riparian woodland with high densities of alder and hazel or salmonberry.    
Rodentia Muridae Red Tree Vole Arborimus longicaudus Lower Risk Coastal area and Western Cascade Mountains, W Oregon   532         Nocturnal and highly arboreal; very rarely descends to the ground. Eats mainly Douglas fir needles, clipping a small branch and carrying it back to the nest. Makes very large, low nests on high branches. Lives in coniferous forest; favors old-growth Douglas fir forest.    
Rodentia Muridae Western Red-backed Vole Clethrionomys californicus Lower Risk as Clethrionomys californicus Coastal coniferous forest from the Columbia River south through W Oregon to NW California   406         Active at any time in Coast Range, thought to be diurnal in Cascades. Travels under logs or under leaf litter. Does not climb. Habitat is moist forest with numerous fallen logs; prefers old-growth coniferous forest with a closed canopy and little undergrowth. denizen of forest habitats  
Rodentia Muridae Southern Red-backed Vole Clethrionomys gapperi Data Deficient as M. g. solus, Lower Risk (nt) as C. g. maurus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Most of Canada from N British Columbia to Labrador, excluding Newfoundland; south in the Appalachians to N Georgia and NW South Carolina, in the Great Plains to N Iowa, and in the Rockies to C New Mexico and EC Arizona; extralimital isolates in NW and E Pennsylvania and S New Jersey 69 146?         Active at any time, but tends to be more diurnal in winter and mainly nocturnal in summer. Travels under leaf litter and fallen logs but does not construct an underground burrow system. Lives in damp forests with fallen logs, also mountain meadows, clear-cuts and bogs. omnivorous, opportunistic feeder  
Rodentia Muridae Sagebrush Vole Lemmiscus curtatus Lower Risk Sagebrush steppe and desert from S Alberta and SE Saskatchewan, Canada, south to EC California and NW Colorado, including the Columbia Basin of interior Oregon and Washington 947, 1339           Mainly crepuscular, but can be active at any time. Lives colonially in a shared burrow system, usually built under cover with multiple entrances. Habitat is dry areas with sagebrush or rabbitbrush, on stony soil. strictly herbivorous  
Rodentia Muridae California Vole Microtus californicus U.S. ESA - Endangered; IUCN - Vulnerable as M. c. mohavensis and M. c. scirpensis, Data Deficient as M. c. stephensi, Lower Risk (nt) as M. c. vallicola, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Oak woodlands and grasslands of Pacific coast, from SW Oregon through California, to N Baja California Norte, Mexico   868         Mainly diurnal; most active in the early morning. Eats green vegetation when available; roots and seeds during dry summer months. Makes a nest of shredded grass in the burrow or under a log. Habitat is grassy fields, meadows, marshes, coastal wetlands and recent clear-cuts. spends most time underground  
Rodentia Muridae Gray-tailed Vole Microtus canicaudus Lower Risk Willamette Valley, NW Oregon and adjacent Washington   267         Makes surface runways and underground tunnels. If tunnels are flooded will swim to dry sections or abandon area and move to higher ground. Lives in grasslands and agricultural areas. endemic to Will. Valley & Clark Co., WA  
Rodentia Muridae Brush Deermouse Peromyscus boylii Lower Risk Much of SW USA, from N California to westernmost Oklahoma, south to N Baja California Norta and Trans-Pecos Texas, along the Sierra Madre Occidental and W Central Plateau to Queretaro and W Hidalgo, Mexico 1171 838         Climbs well, but usually nests in rock crevices or under fallen trees. Probably does not dig its own burrows and requires rocks or other ground cover for shelter. Lives in woods and dense brush with rocks, fallen trees, or brush piles; usually found above 3,000 ft to about 8,500 ft.    
Rodentia Muridae Canyon Deermouse Peromyscus crinitus Lower Risk E Oregon and SW Idaho, south through Nevada and parts of Utah and W Colorado, to EC Baja California Norte and NW Sonora, Mexico   287         Climbs with agility on vertical rock faces or overhanging walls. Does not need to drink water; obtains moisture from food. Lives in desolate rocky terrain with very sparse vegetation, on canyon walls, mesas and talus slopes; below sea level to over 10,000 ft. destinguished by soft, silky pelage  
Rodentia Muridae North American Deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus Lower Risk (nt) as P. m. anacapae and P. m. clemintis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Panhandle of Alaska and across N Canada, south through most of continental USA, excluding the SE and E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico; including many land bridge islands 74, 1175           Woodland forms climb very well and are semi-arboreal. Feeds on seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi and other foods; stores excess in caches. Occupies almost every habitat type, from boreal forest and tundra to desert, prairies, swamps and high mountains. exhibits variation in color and size  
Rodentia Muridae Piñon Deermouse Peromyscus truei Lower Risk (nt) as P. t.. comanche, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) USA, SW and C Oregon to W and SE Colorado, south to N Baja California Norte, Mexico, Arizona and New Mexico; isolated populations in N Texas (comanche) and S Baja California Sur (lagunae) 1176 161         Hops away when disturbed, may climb a tree or disappear among rocks if pursued. Eats mostly piñon and juniper seeds, also takes insects and fungi. Prefers piñon and piñon-juniper stands, usually among rocks. characterized by enormous ears  
Rodentia Muridae Western Heather Vole Phenacomys intermedius Lower Risk NW British Columbia and SW Alberta, Canada, south to N New Mexico, C Utah and N California; disjunct populations in EC California and W Nevada   305         Mainly crepuscular or nocturnal. Usually solitary but may huddle in communal nests in winter. Habitat is heather meadows, alpine areas and open coniferous forest with a dense cover of low shrubs; usually found at 4,000-12,000ft, sometimes at lower elevations. resembles Microtus montanus  
Rodentia Muridae Western Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis Lower Risk SC British Columbia and SE Alberta, Canada; through much of W and NC USA; south to N Baja California Norte and through interior Mexico to C Oaxaca 1018 167         Feeds on small seeds, moth larvae, beetles and other insects. Nests are usually well concealed on the ground or low in vegetation. Prefers wet meadows and overgrown fields; also found in dry areas and clearing in forests. rock is key component of habitat  
Rodentia Geomyidae Yellow-faced Pocket Gopher Cratogeomys castanops Lower risk Southeastern Colorado and southwestern Kansas to east Durango and S Coahuila, Mexico. 691, 692                
Rodentia Geomyidae Baird's Pocket Gopher Geomys breviceps   Western Louisiana, eastern Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and  southwestern Arkansas.   383              
Rodentia Geomyidae Plains Pocket Gopher Geomys bursarius Lower risk Southcentral Manitoba, Canada to northwest Indiana, southcentral Texas and northeastern New Mexico. 690   X            
Rodentia Heteromyidae California Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys californicus   South central Oregon, northwestern Nevada, and northern California to north of San Francisco Bay.   324 Lower Risk (lc)   Eats mostly seeds of shrubs and grasses; does not store seeds in burrow but makes small caches in soil. Habitat is brushy hills and chaparral; avoids dense vegetation. Also found on well-drained rocky or stony soils.  Sometimes burrows under boulders. Considered distinct from heermanni based on chromosomal (Fashing, 1973) and biochemical data (Patton et al., 1976).  Hall (1981:578) listed californicus as a subspecies of heermanni, without discussion of Patton et al. (1976). Reviewed by Kelt (1988b, Mammalian Species No. 324). Williams et al. (1993) regarded eximius Grinnell and saxatilis Grinnell and Linsdale as valid subspecies. nocturnal, largest kangaroo rat in Oregon  
Rodentia Sciuridae Yellow-pine chipmunk Tamias amoenus   Northwestern United States; Idaho, Washington Oregon, northern Nevada and Utah, western Wyoming and Montana, and mountainous areas of California. 1913, 1914 390 Least concern         commonly found in ponderosa pine  
Rodentia Sciuridae Least chipmunk Tamias minimus   North central states including Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan.  Also occupies much of the Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains. 108 653 Least concern         smallest chipmunk in Oregon  
Rodentia Sciuridae North American red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus   Alaska and throughout Canada; northeastern United States, south to northwestern South Carolina. 111, 260, 826, 827 586 Least concern         live in montane forested areas  
Rodentia Sciuridae Belding's ground squirrel Urocitellus beldingi   Mountainous areas of the western United States; eastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, much of Nevada, and northeastern California. 1107, 1887 221 Least concern         commonly found in meadows  
Rodentia Sciuridae Merriam's ground squirrel Urocitellus canus   Much of eastern Oregon, northwestern Nevada, extreme northeastern California, and southwestern Idaho.     Least concern         diet consists of grasses and forbs  
Rodentia Sciuridae Columbian ground squirrel Urocitellus columbianus   Rocky Mountains of western Montana, Idaho, and eastern Washington and Oregon. 102 372 Least concern         occurs in small openings and forest meadows  
Rodentia Sciuridae Wyoming ground squirrel Urocitellus elegans   There are three disjunct populations.  One is in southwestern Montana.  One is in much of Wyoming, extreme southeastern Idaho, and northern Colorado.  One is in southeastern Idaho, northeastern Nevada, and extreme southeastern Oregon. 99, 1341 214 Least concern         only seven specimens collected in Oregon  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Chisel-toothed Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys microps   Southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho, south through northwestern and southeastern California, Nevada, and western Utah, to northwestern Arizona (USA).   389 Vulnerable as D. m. leucotis, Data Deficient as D. m. alfredi, otherwise Lower Risk.   Eats more leaves than seeds and will climb into shrubs to harvest food. Prefers desert valleys dominated by saltbush and upland deserts with blackbush; less common in other desert communities and on sand dunes. Revised by Hall and Dale (1939); reviewed by Csuti (1979) and Hayssen (1991, Mammalian Species No. 389). Williams et al. (1993) listed valid subspecies.  Stores food in burrow. large cheek pouches  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Ord's Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys ordii   Southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta (Canada) and southeastern Washington south through Great Plains and intermontane basins of western USA, to Mexican Plateau as far south as Hidalgo (Mexico). 560, 693, 1099, 1352 353 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in dry grasslands, desert scrub, piñon-juniper and sagebrush, almost always on fine sandy soils or sand dunes. Revised by Setzer (1949) and reviewed by Garrison and Best (1990, Mammalian Species No. 353); subspecies follow Williams et al. (1993).  Does not include compactus, see Schmidly and Hendricks (1976), Baumgardner and Schmidly (1981), and comment under that species.  Williams et al. (1993) provide a list of what they consider as valid subspecies.  Most active on dark cloudy nights, seldom above ground by day or in bad weather. Makes deep burrows, with entrances often under shrubs or on banks. lightest colored kangaroo rat in Oregon  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Dark Kangaroo Mouse Microdipodops megacephalus   Southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northeastern and east central California, northern and central Nevada, and westcentral Utah (USA). 1100 46 Vulnerable as M. m. atrirelictus, Data Deficient as M. m. nexus, otherwise Lower Risk.     Prefers sand dunes and deserts with fine sand soils, but where it overlaps with Pale Kangaroo Mouse it is found on gravelly soil. Reviewed by O'Farrell and Blaustein (1974a, Mammalian Species No. 46).  Hafner et al. (1979) discounted the suggestion by Hall (1941:380-382) of hybridization between megacephalus and pallidus.  Also, Hall's suggestion (1981:560) that leucotis may warrant specific status is not supported (see Hafner and Hafner, 1983).  Subspecies listed by Williams et al. (1993).  Feeds in the open, unlike pocket mice. Hibernates November-March. diet of seeds and insects  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Little Pocket Mouse Perognathus longimembris U.S. ESA – Endangered as P. l. pacificus. Southeastern Oregon and western Utah (USA) south to northern Sonora and Baja California and Baja California Sur (Mexico) (see Alvarez-Castañeda et al., 2001).     Critically Endangered as P. l. pacificus, Vulnerable as P. l. brevinasus, Data Deficient as P. l. bangsi and P. l. internationalis; otherwise Lower Risk (lc).     Habitat is desert scrub, on sandy or gravelly soils with sparse vegetation. Also found in dry grassland and coastal sage. Revised by Osgood (1918); subspecies listed by Hall (1981) and Williams et al. (1993), who placed psammophilus von Bloeker with P. inronatus instead of longimembris, where this taxon has usually been assigned (Hall, 1981; Patton, 1993b).  Stays below ground for up to 9 months in winter, arousing from torpor occasionally to feed on stored seeds. smallest rodent in Oregon  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Great Basin Pocket Mouse Perognathus parvus   Great Basin from southern British Columbia (Canada), south to eastern California and east to southeastern Wyoming and northwestern Arizona (USA). 752, 753 318 Lower Risk (lc) as P. parvus and P. xanthanotus.     Prefers dry sandy regions dominated by sagebrush, but also occurs in grassland, desert and open woodlands. Reviewed by Verts and Kirkland (1988, Mammalian Species No. 318).  Includes xanthonotus (Williams et al., 1993), often considered a distinct species (Hall, 1981; Patton, 1993b; Verts and Kirkland, 1988, by omission).  Remains belowground November-March. Breeds April-October; litter size is 2-8. diet consists mostly of seeds  
Rodentia Muridae House Mouse Mus musculus Lower risk Every state in the United States. 92, 754             more active at night and in subdued light  
Rodentia Muridae Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus Lower risk Scattered across the United States but very scarce, in not absent, from the Rocky Mountains (might looks this way because of sampling effort). 755, 756, 757, 758             native to China and Siberia  
Rodentia Muridae Roof Rat Rattus rattus Lower risk Distributed around the outside of the country.  Not many records of this species being collected in the interior of the country (this might be because of sampling effort). 759, 760             native of southeastern Asia  
Rodentia Sciuridae Golden-mantled ground squirrel Callospermophilus lateralis   Mountains of western United States and Canada. 100, 1108, 1726, 1727, 1885 440 Least concern         distinctly marked ground squirrel  
Rodentia Sciuridae Northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus   Alaska and Canada, northwestern United States to southern California and western South Dakota, northeastern United States to southern Appalachian Mountains. 1020 229 Least concern         smallest arboreal squirrel in Oregon  
Rodentia Sciuridae Yellow-bellied marmot Marmota flaviventris   Western United States through the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada and Intermountain west. 106 135 Least concern       M. f. engelhardti reported from Washington County, Utah - 20 miles from AZ border yellowish brown to tannish brown color  
Carnivora Canidae Eastern Coyote Canis latrans Common Throughout continental US. 265 (C), 1126, 1127 (B), 1267 79         Larger than western coyote.    
Carnivora Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Common Throughout the US except in the southwest. 435 (W), 436 (Y), 582 537         This species helps keep small mammal populations in check; white tail tip. Occurs in red, silver, and cross colors  
Carnivora Canidae Kit Fox Vulpes macrotis Common Southwestern US. 269, 1208 (B) 123         Smallest North American canid.  Large ears and black tail tip.    
Carnivora Canidae Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Common Nationwide except for the northwest. 584 189         Black dorsal stripe on tail; climbs trees. grizzle grey in color  
Carnivora Ursidae Black Bear Ursus americanus Common Northeast, Great Lakes region, Appalachians, Arkansas and west; Alaska and northern Canada but absent in Nevada and Great Plains.  Southern distributions spotty into Mexico. 142 (C),1132 (S) 647         Usually not aggressive. Adults climb trees.   Black color most common, cinnamon and white phases also exist. Game mammal in Oregon  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Marten Martes americana Common within range Extreme northern New England, mountain ranges of western US, Canada, and Alaska.   289         Found in isolated pockets of habitat. diet of birds, insects, and fruit  
Carnivora Mustelidae Fisher Martes pennanti Common Southern Canada to northeastern and midwestern US. 590 (C) 156         Larger and less arboreal than martens.  Successfully preys on porcupines. Considerably larger than martens  
Carnivora Mustelidae Ermine or Short-tailed Weasel Mustela erminea Common All of Canada, northeastern US, Great Lakes region, northwestern US. 588 (P), 1051 (P) 195         Color varies seasonally, mainly eats rodents and young rabbits, as well as small vertebrates and invertebrates.  Nocturnal. in Britian refered to as "stoat"  
Carnivora Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Common Southwestern Canada, everywhere south of Canada/US border to South America except arid desert areas of southwest US and northwest Mexico. 1348 570         Prefers rodents, but feeds on a broad array of small vertebrates.  Agile swimmer.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, but not southern populations. can exist in many habitats except desert  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Mink Neovison vison Common Alaska and contiguous 48 states, except for arid west and southwest. 1129 608         Though taken for their fur, ranched mink have relieved the pressure on wild ones.  Mink eat crayfish, fish, frogs, and small rodents along with any other animals they can capture and kill. semiaquatic species  
Carnivora Mustelidae Wolverine Gulo gulo Rare within the 48 contiguous US. Alaska, Rocky Mountains, isolated pockets in the Sierras. 442 (C), 807 (S), 1295 (S), 1296 (S), 1297 (S) 499         Largest member of the mustelid (weasel) family, wolverines consume much carrion but are also efficient predators who prey on animals as large as caribou.  If necessary they also feed on berries. thought once to be extirpated in Oregon  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Badger Taxidea taxus Common within range Western and central North America, from central Canada to central Mexico. 701 (C), 702 (A), 703 (H) 26         Because of their secretive and fossorial (digging) habits badgers are not often seen.  Persecuted by humans, though sometimes inadvertently when taking poisoned meat meant for wolves and coyotes. carnivore, strongly adapted for digging  
Carnivora Mustelidae Northern River Otter Lontra canadensis Common in the northern part of its range, uncommon to extirpated in southern parts of its range. Alaska and most of the continental US except for much of the southwestern continental US. 802 (A), 859 (W) 587         Playful, likes to slide on the snow.  Eats fish and other aquatic or amphibious animals. adapted for land and water  
Carnivora Mephitidae Western Spotted Skunk Spilogale gracilis Unknown Western continental US.   674         Other than what is known about skunks in general, not much is known about this species specifically. primarily nocturnal  
Carnivora Mephitidae Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Common Throughout continental US except a small area in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 280 173         Sometimes de-scented and kept as pets (not recommended).  Good "mouser" and will use cat litter boxes. house cat-sized mammal  
Carnivora Otariidae Northern Fur Seal Callorhinus ursinus Some populations depleted, while others are doing well West coast from central Alaska to southern California. 1300 (S), 1301, 1302           There are no subspecies of this animal because they range so widely that genetic material is spread throughout the entire population.  Populations were threatened by hunting, but have rebounded after governmental management was instituted. occur mainly in January  
Carnivora Otariidae Stellar Sea Lion Eumetopias jubatus East of 144º W threatened, west of 144º it is endangered. Pacific coast from south central Alaska south to California. 1270 (FM), 1303 (M) 283         Largest member of the Otariidae family.  Generally eat schooling fish, octopus, or squid but might take smaller seals. forms large groups  
Carnivora Phocidae Harbor Seal Phoca vitulina Common All of west coast from southern Alaska south to Mexico; also New England south to Delaware along the east coast. 135           Unlike many other seal species, harbor seals have an annual reproductive cycle.  Prey on a large range of swimming and bottom dwelling ocean species, mainly fish.  Dives can be deep and last up to a half an hour. commonly come ashore  
Carnivora Phocidae Northern Elephant Seal Mirounga angustirostris Recovering from overhunting West coast of US, principally off the coast of California. 134, 282 (Y), 449, 450 (FY), 451 (G), 452 (A), 453 (A)             diet of cephalapods and fish  
Carnivora Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor Common Common throughout US except portions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. 140, 709 (S) 119         Raccoons are extremely adaptable and can live in a wide range of temperatures.  They are found virtually anywhere there is water.  Their diet is extremely varied including plant and animal material.  The forefeet of raccoons end in highly sensitive hand-l eat almost anything organic  
Carnivora Felidae Mountain Lion, Puma, or Cougar Puma concolor Stable in the western, Endangered in Florida. Western contiguous US, small population in Florida. 275, 276, 586           Cougars are active mainly at dusk, night, and dawn.  Most of their prey consists of larger animals such as ungulates, but turtles, rabbit-sized animals, coyotes, and other cougars are taken.  The name "concolor" comes from the even coloration that differs range over broad areas  
Carnivora Felidae Canada Lynx Lynx canadensis Common in range Alaska, Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes, and extreme northern New England. 587           Has been said to live in areas where they have not been seen, due to existing only in remote areas where feline distemper cannot be transmitted by more resistant cats.  Eats snowshoe hares in the winter.  Has large feet for running in the snow. only 12 specimens known in Oregon  
Carnivora Felidae Bobcat Lynx rufus Rare or common, depending on geographic region. All of contiguous US, except for parts of California, Utah, Colorado,  agricultural areas of the midwest and coastal areas of the midAtlantic states. 819, 1293 563         As with the Canada lynx, bobcats are very secretive and seldom observed even in areas it occupies.  Slightly smaller than the lynx, it is capable of taking adult white-tailed deer.  Though mainly a carnivore,  areas a large array of plant and animal mater females considerably smaller than males  
Artiodactyla Cervidae Elk Cervus elaphus Common Western US and Canada. 189, 190,191, 318, 809, 1077, 1278             heavy bodied, deer-like mammals  
Artiodactyla Cervidae Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus Common Southern Alaska to central Mexico, east across US and Canada to South Dakota Nebraska, Kansas, and western Texas.   219           considered to be "browsers": tend to be secretive  
Artiodactyla Cervidae White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Common Throughout North America, except northern Canada and very arid areas of western US. 1313 388           during flight, tail is held erect  
Artiodactyla Cervidae Moose Alces americanus Common within its range Most of sub-arctic Canada, Alaska, Montana, Idaho,  western Wyoming, Minnesota, New York, New England. 192, 618 154              
Artiodactyla Cervidae Caribou Rangifer tarandus Common within its range Northern Canada and Alaska, except in south-central regions.  Small pockets in west at US Canada border and Northern Great Lakes region. 193, 477, 1280, 1314                
Artiodactyla Antilocapridae Pronghorn Antelope Antilocapra americana Common West-central US with some extensions across the border with Canada and some ranging into central Mexico. 166, 717,718, 823, 1310 90       Open areas   once abudant and widespread in Oregon  
Artiodactyla Bovidae Bighorn Sheep Ovis canadensis Common in historic range Mountainous and hilly areas of the western contiguous US and southern Canada. 168, 169, 307, 941 230           both sexes equipped with horns  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous US and Alaska 39, 223 356 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Eptesicini a more abundant bat species in Oregon  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Western Red Bat Lasiurus blossevillii Lower Risk (lc) West coast and southwestern United States     Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini    
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous United States and Hawaii 656, 041, 042 185 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini; *Status is Low Risk eith the exception of L. c. semotus most distinctly colored bat in Oregon  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Townsend's Big-eared bat Corynorhinus townsendii Vulnerable Western United States, east to the Rocky Mountains, a few scattered populations in the eastern United States 229 175 Vulnerable       TRIBE Plecotini; *Status is Vulnerable as Plecotus townsendii; Endangered as P. ingens and P. virginianus hibernates during winter  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Spotted Bat Euderma maculatum Lower Risk (lc) Rocky Mountain area of the United States from Idaho to the western tip of Texas 734 77 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Plecotini occurs in many habitat types  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Pallid Bat Antrozous pallidus Lower Risk (lc) Semi-arid Western United States, east to western edge of Kansas 230 213 Lower Risk (lc)         usually found in desert areas  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the United States except extreme southern protions of southern states.  Also occurs in southeastern Alaska. 658 172 Lower Risk (lc)         diet consists of a variety of insects  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Californian Myotis Myotis californicus Lower Risk (lc) Southern Alaska panhandle, western United States from Washington to western tip of Texas   428 Lower Risk (lc)         diet composed mostly of moths  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Western Small-footed Bat Myotis ciliolabrum Lower Risk (lc) Much of the western United States   670 Lower Risk (lc)         associated with arid range lands  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Lower Risk (lc) Most of US, except Texas to Nebraska, and extreme southern portions of southern states 224, 225, 814 142 Lower Risk (lc)         possibly most abundant bat in Oregon  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Dark-nosed Small-footed Myotis Myotis melanorhinus Not evaluated Washington to western Oklahoma, extending southwest to the western tip of Texas     Not evaluated            
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Fringed Myotis Myotis thysanodes Lower Risk (lc) Western tip of Texas to southwestern South Dakota and west to coast   137 Lower Risk (lc)         cave-dwelling bat  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Long-legged Myotis Myotis volans Lower Risk (lc) Alaska panhandle to California, east to western tip of Texas and western North Dakota   224 Lower Risk (lc)         commonly associated with coniferous forest  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Yuma Myotis Myotis yumanensis Lower Risk (lc) California north to Washington, east to Montana and western Texas     Lower Risk (lc)         associated closely with water  
Chiroptera Molossidae Brazilian/Mexican Free-tailed Bat Tadarida brasiliensis Lower Risk (nt) From Oregon to North Carolina and south 1549 331 Lower Risk (nt)         releases odoriferous compounds  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Pygmy Rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis Endangered in WA; otherwise Lower Risk Southwest Oregon to east central California, southwest Utah, north to southwest Montana, west central Washington.   125       Closely associated with dense stands of sagebrush. Mostly crepuscular, but can be seen by day. Walks or scurries instead of walks, and lives in underground burrows. habitats dominated by big sagebrush  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Snowshoe Hare Lepus americanus Lower risk Southern and central Alaska to southern and central coasts of Hudson Bay to Newfoundland and Anacosti Island, Canada, south to southern Appalachians, southern Michigan, North Dakota, north central New Mexico, south central Utah, and east central California. 246, 544           Mostly nocturnal or crepuscular; shelters by day under logs or in thick vegetation. Lives in forests and dense thickets, often associated with low wet areas. molts from brown to white  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Black-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus californicus Lower risk Hidalgo and southern Queretaro to northern Sonora and Baja California, Mexico; north to southwestern Oregon and central Washington, southern Idaho, eastern Colorado, southern South Dakota, western Missouri, and northwestern Arkansas. Apparently isolated population in southwestern Montana. 060, 245, 1347 530       Sagebrush flats, overgrazed pastures and rangelands, deserts, prairies and agricultural lands. Nocturnal or crepuscular; rests by day in a shallow soil depression, usually in the shade of a bush. Uses speed and agility to avoid predators; usually solitary, but may be seen in pairs or larger groups. in summer pelage is lighter  
Lagomorpha Leporidae White-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus townsendii Lower risk Central Alberta and Saskatchewan east to extreme southwestern Ontario, Canada, south to southwestern Wisconsin, Iowa, northwestern Missouri, west through central Kansas to north central New Mexico, west to central Nevada, east central California, US, and north to south central British Columbia, Canada. 1189, 1349 288       Open grasslands, meadows and cultivated areas; less common in sagebrush flats. Mainly nocturnal, but may be active at dawn or dusk.  When pursued, follows a zigzag path with big leaps and bursts of speed. usually active at night  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Eastern Cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Lower Risk Northern, central, and western Venezuela and adjacent islands and adjacent Colombia through Central America (disjunct in part); to northwestern Mexico, Arizona, north and east to North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Michigan, New York and Massachusetts, Atlantic Coast south and Florida Gulf Coast west to Mexico; also southern Saskatchewan, southern Ontario and south central Quebec, Canada. 058, 953 136       Thickets and old fields, edges of hardwood forest, farmland, prairies and swamps. One of most familiar rabbits, mainly nocturnal but may be active and dawns or dusk. Sleeps under brush piles or in thickets or dense grass. largest member of genus in Oregon  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Mountain Cottontail Sylvilagus nuttallii Lower Risk Intermountain area of North America from southern British Columbia to southern Saskatchewan, Canada, south to eastern California, Nevada, central Arizona and NW New Mexico.   56       Lives in rocky areas in sagebrush flats, riparian areas and gullies near ponderosa pines or spruces. Most active at dawn or dusk. Unlike most rabbits, sometimes climbs trees. feeds especially on cheat grass  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Baird's shrew Sorex bairdii Least concern Northwestern Oregon.     Lower risk         endemic to Oregon  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Marsh shrew Sorex bendirii Least concern Western half of Oregon and Washington, northwestern California.   27           largest member of genus in N.A.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Masked shrew Sorex cinereus Least concern Throughout Alaska, south through most of Washington, Idaho, central Utah and Colorado into north central New Mexico, east through most of Wyoming and Nebraska, Iowa, northern Illinois, and most of Indiana and Ohio, and south throught the Appalachian Mountains to north east Georgia and on the East Coast south to Maryland and New Jersey. 1392 743              
Soricomorpha Soricidae Merriam's shrew Sorex merriami Least concern Western United States.   2         Strong preference for dry habitats. smallest shrew in Oregon  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Dusky shrew Sorex monticolus Least concern Much of Alaska south to northern Mexico.  Pacific coast east to the northern Great Plains.   528         Also known as the Montane shrew. slightly larger than S. vagrans  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Pacific shrew Sorex pacificus Least concern Occurs along the Pacific shore from Oregon down to central California.   231           endemic to Oregon  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Water shrew Sorex palustris Least concern Southern Alaska and the northern and mountainous areas of the United States. 1287 296           almost always found near water  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Preble's shrew Sorex preblei Least concern Northwestern United States.   416           found in wide variety of habitats  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Fog shrew Sorex sonomae Least concern Coastal areas of northern California and Oregon.               nocturnal  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Trowbridge's shrew Sorex trowbridgii Least concern Western Washington and Oregon and mountainous areas of California.   337           occurs in coniferous forests  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Vagrant shrew Sorex vagrans Least concern Along the Pacific coast to central coastal California, throughout Oregon and Washington, western Montana, western and southern Idaho, Northern and east central Nevada, northern and extreme west central Utah, and extremem western Wyoming. 1288 744           most abundant during summer  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Shrew mole Neurotrichus gibbsii Least concern South west British Columbia Canada to west central California. 727, 728 387         Active both night and day; does not form molehills when making tunnels. Swims well; does not hibernate; appears to be relatively social. Habitat is willow or alder thickets along streams and other moist, low lying areas with soft soil. diet consists of earthworms  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Broad-footed mole Scapanus latimanus Least concern South central Oregon to northern Baja California and Mexico.   666         Makes temporary foraging tunnels just below the soil surface, leaving a visible ridge in the soil. Feeds mainly on earthworms. Favors rich damp soils with little vegetation; avoids heavy clay or stony soils. lighter grey pelage  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Coast mole Scapanus orarius Least concern Southwestern British Columbia, Canada to northwestern California , west central Idaho, northern Oregon, central and southeast Washington. 346 253         Adults remain underground but young apparently disperse on the surface and may fall prey to Barn Owls or house cats. Breeds early in the year; litter size is 2-4. Habitat is well-drained, often sandy soil in open meadows, brush and woods; avoids very wet smallest mole in Oregon  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Townsend's mole Scapanus townsendii Least concern South western British Columbia, Canada to northwestern California.   434         Makes surface ridges and deeper tunnels. Nests are marked by a very large mound or "fortress" of small mounds; makes a large nest chamber 6-8 inches below surface lined with green grass with an inner lining of dry grass. Lives in moist to wet meadows, riv almost black pelage  
Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana least concern found everywhere except NV, MT, UT, ND, SD, WI, MN, WY 3, 4, 630, 828, 829, 830 40         Nocturnal, introduced to the western states in the early 1900s nocturnal  
Rodentia Aplodontidae Mountain Beaver Aplodontia rufa common forest areas W of Cascades exc interior valleys 742, 743 431         tend to be asoicial exc during reproduction tend to be asoicial exc during reproduction  
Rodentia Erethizontidae Common Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum common   82, 870 29         active throughout year active throughout year  
Rodentia Myocastoridae Nutria Myocastor coypus common   1019 398         semiaquatic semiaquatic rodent  
Lagomorpha Ochotonidae Pika Ochotona princeps common   63, 64 352           generalist herbivore  
Cetacea Eschrichtiidae Gray Whale Eschrichtius robustus U.S. ESA - Endangered, except for Eastern North Pacific Ocean - coastal and Bering, Beaufort and Chukchi Seas populations which are Delisted Taxa; IUCN - Critically Endangered in Northwest Pacific, otherwise Lower Risk North Pacific: warm temperate to arctic waters. Formerly present int he North Atlantic. Sometimes enters tropical water at the southern boundaries of its distribution. The eastern and western North Pacific populations are separate. The eastern population is distributed from Baja California and the adjacent coast of Mexico to the Bering and Chukchi Seas. The western population is distributed from the East China Sea to the Sea of Okhotsk 833, 834, 835, 836, 837, 1135, 1136, 1217, 1308     no carnivore aquatic, marine When traveling, typically blows 3-5 times at intervals of 15-30 seconds, then dives for 3-5 minutes. Feeds by sucking up amphipods and other invertebrates from the sea floor. Found in coastal waters.    
Cetacea Delphinidae Pacific White-sided Dolphin Lagernorhynchus obliquidens Lower Risk North Pacific: cold-temperate waters except warm-temperate waters of the ends of its range. Undocumented sighting from Hong Kong 433, 1009     no carnivore aquatic, marine Travels in herds of 200-1000, moving with acrobatic leaps. Feeds mainly at night. Prefers cold continental shelf and offshore waters.    
Cetacea Delphinidae Killer Whale Orcinus orca Lower Risk Worldwide: all seas and oceans 979, 1057, 1058, 1133 304   no carnivore aquatic, marine Often cruises with tall fin clearly visible. Takes a wide variety of prey including fish, seals, baleen whales and seabirds; larger prey is hunted with a group. Most common near shore, especially in the Northwest.    
Cetacea Phocoenidae Harbor Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Vulnerable N Pacific and N Atlantic: arctic to cold-temperate waters, isolated population in Black Sea; extends south to Senegal in the E Atlantic 1130, 1357 42   no carnivore aquatic, marine Shy and often difficult to approach. Seldom breaches, but many arc and splash when pursuing prey. Lives in cold coastal waters.    
Cetacea Phocoenidae Dall's Porpoise Phocoenoides dalli Lower Risk North Pacific: cold-temperate waters 1060 319   no carnivore aquatic, marine A fast, energetic swimmer; groups unusually numbering 2-12 often bow-ride or accompany boats. Habitat is coastal and offshore waters.    
Cetacea Physeteridae Sperm Whale Physeter catodon US ESA - Endangered; IUCN - Vulnerable as P. macrocephalus Worldwide: Antarctic and cold-temperate waters (northern hemisphere) to tropical waters       no carnivore aquatic, marine A deep diver; emerges and blows sharply, as many as 50 times before diving again. Dives to depths of over a mile and can stay underwater for 1-2 hours. Habitat is deep waters, especially along the edge of the continental shelf.