Mammals of Oklahoma



Common Name

Species Name



Mammal Image Library #s

Mammalian Species #

IUCN Status





OK Notes

OK Citations

Rodentia Muridae Prairie Vole Microtus ochrogaster Lower Risk Northern and Central Great Plains - EC Alberta to S Manitoba, Canada; south to N Texas Panhandle, SW Oklahoma and Arkansas; eastwards to C Tennessee, westernmost West Virginia, and W Ohio; relictual populations in C Colorado, N New Mexico and coastal prairies of SW Louisiana and adjacent Texas 1160 355         Most active at dawn or dusk. Unlike most voles, forms monogamous pairs that share a nest; both parents care for young and defend their home range. Older offspring may remain with parents and help tend a new litter. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and agricultural areas, usually on dry sandy soils at lower elevations. Found in grassy areas  
Rodentia Muridae Woodland Vole Microtus pinetorum Lower Risk Temperate deciduous forest zone of E USA - eastern shoreline from S Maine to NC Florida, west to C Wisconsin and E Texas; isolated population on the Edwards Plateau, C Texas, may be extinct   147         Mainly subterranean; makes burrows under leaf litter or in shallow soil, only emerging to race to another burrow. Lives in small family groups and is usually monogamous. Habitat is deciduous forest with thick leaf litter, grassy patches in woodlands or orchards and dense brush. Favors areas with sandy soils. Found in woodlands & moist grassy areas, especially along fence lines  
Rodentia Muridae Eastern Woodrat Neotoma floridana U.S ESA - Endangered as N. f. smalli; IUCN - Endangered as N. f. smalli, Lower Risk (nt) as N. f. baileyi and N. f. haematoreia, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SC and SE USA from EC Colorado to C Texas, eastwards to the Atlantic seaboard, from S North Carolina to peninsular Florida; isolated population on Florida Keys (smalli) 1016 139         Active year-round, but may stay in its house in bad weather. Climbs well and is semi-arboreal. Habitat is variable; includes bluffs and rocky areas, swamps and hammocks, forested uplands and dry scrub pine. Wooded areas, ravines & grass-shrub areas. Often build large brush-pile houses at bases of trees or bushes. May build nests in trees.  
Rodentia Muridae Mexican Woodrat Neotoma mexicana Lower Risk SE Utah and C Colorado, southwards through W and interior Mexico to highlands of Guatemala, El Salvador and W Honduras 1167 262         Eats a variety of green plant material including some conifers, also seeds, berries and acorns. Seldom makes a large stick house, but usually constructs its nest in a rock crevice. Habitat is cliffs, talus slopes and rocky outcrops mostly in montane coniferous forest, sometimes in scrub oak and piñon-juniper woods. Found in mountainous regions; rock canyons of Black Mesa  
Rodentia Muridae Southern Plains Woodrat Neotoma micropus Lower Risk SE Colorado and SW Kansas through W Texas and most of New Mexico; south in Mexico to N Chihuahua, E San Luis Potosi, and S Tamaulipas   330         Eats cactus leaves and fruit, mesquite beans, acorns and other plant material and can obtain sufficient water from its food. Makes a house under a prickly pear cactus or shrub and probably uses the same house for life. Lives in dry grasslands with cactus, mesquite and other shrubs; mainly found in flat plains, occasionally on rocky hillsides. Arid regions; rocky hillsides & ledges. Constructs den of sticks & cacti, bones, cow dung, etc.  
Rodentia Muridae Golden Mouse Ochrotomys nuttalli Lower Risk SE USA, from SE Missouri across to E West Virginia and S Virginia, south to E Texas, the Gulf Coast and C Florida 1647 75         Semi-arboreal; climbs among vines and dense thickets using its semi-prehensile tail for balance. In addition to baseball-sized nests used by a single adult, sometimes makes larger nests occupied by a group of 8 or more. Habitat is forested areas with dense tangles of briars, vines and brush; most common in floodplains. Timbered regions. Builds nests & feeding platforms in trees.  
Rodentia Muridae Common Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Data Deficient as O. z. ripensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) North America, north to the tree line, including Newfoundland; south to the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande and lower Colorado River valleys. Introduced to Czech Republic in 1905 and now widespread in the Palearctic, including C and N Europe, most of Ukraine, Russia and Siberia, adjacent parts of Mongolia and scattered through China, NE Korea, and Honshu Island, Japan; also into southernmost Argentina 1162, 1163 141         Mainly nocturnal, but also active on overcast or rainy days; more likely to be seen by day than other large semiaquatic rodents. Swims well and is more buoyant than a beaver. Habitat is shallow marshes with abundant cattails; less common along streams or in wooded swamps. Live in marshes and water ways. Live in dome-shaped houses often surrounded by water, or in burrows in banks.  
Rodentia Muridae Northern Grasshopper Mouse Onychomys leucogaster Data Deficient as O. l. durranti, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) S Alberta, S Saskatchewan, and SW Manitoba, Canada, south through much of Great Plains and Great Basin region of USA, to NC Sonora and N Tamaulipas, Mexico 253, 1017, 1169 87         Nocturnal; most active on dark moonless nights. Much more carnivorous than most mice, taking large scorpions and beetles and some small vertebrates; also eats seeds and plant material. Mostly very solitary. Habitat is deserts, grasslands, prairies and shrub steppe; favors areas with rather sparse vegetation and sandy soils. Predatory on insects, scorpions, & small or young mice.  
Rodentia Muridae Coues' Oryzomys Oryzomys couesi Lower Risk Extreme S Texas; Mexico, excluding NC plateau region, south through most of Central America, to NW Colombia; including Jamaica, Isla Cozumel, and allopatric populations in S Baja California Sur and WC Sonora             Semi-aquatic; swims well and usually dives into water if disturbed. Sometimes seen at night swimming in deep water at some distance from land. Lives in cattail and bulrush marshes, wet grassy areas near oxbow lakes in Texas; brackish or fresh water. Found in other habitats farther south, but almost always near water.    
Rodentia Muridae Texas Deermouse Peromyscus attwateri Lower Risk Edwards Plateau of C and N Texas, eastwards through SW and E Oklahoma to SE Kansas, SW Missouri and NW Arkansas   48         Semi-arboreal; climbs high in junipers and other trees, also frequents rocky crevices and fallen logs. Eats seeds, other plant matter and insects. Habitat is cliffs and rocky areas dominated by juniper, also oak woodland and cedar glades. Found in rocky habitats, especially limestone outcrops & boulders.  
Rodentia Muridae Brush Deermouse Peromyscus boylii Lower Risk Much of SW USA, from N California to westernmost Oklahoma, south to N Baja California Norta and Trans-Pecos Texas, along the Sierra Madre Occidental and W Central Plateau to Queretaro and W Hidalgo, Mexico 1171 838         Climbs well, but usually nests in rock crevices or under fallen trees. Probably does not dig its own burrows and requires rocks or other ground cover for shelter. Lives in woods and dense brush with rocks, fallen trees, or brush piles; usually found above 3,000 ft to about 8,500 ft. One of the most abundant mice in the Black Mesa area. Found in dense, shrubby vegetation or rocky areas.  
Rodentia Muridae Cotton Deermouse Peromyscus gossypinus U.S. ESA - Endangered as P. g. allapaticola; IUCN - Extinct as P. g. restrictus, Vulnerable as P. g. allapaticola, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SE USA, fro SE Oklahoma, extreme S Illinois and SE Virginia, southwards, skirting the S Appalachians, to E Texas, the Gulf States, and peninsular Florida 677, 678 70         Climbs and swims well. Eats a variety of plant and animal foods. Prefers wet forests, hammocks and swamps; also found in pine woods, thickets and rocky bluffs. Woodlands. Sometimes found in trees. Omnivorous.  
Rodentia Muridae White-footed Deermouse Peromyscus leucopus Data Deficient as P. l. ammodytes, otherwise Lower Risk S Alberta to S Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, Canada; throughout much of C and E USA, excluding Florida; southwards to N Durango and along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec and NW Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico 73, 251, 1174 247         Mainly terrestrial, but climbs well and may forage or nest well above the ground. Swims well, occupies many islands in lakes. Habitat is deciduous and mixed forests, hedgerows, brushy areas, croplands and dry semidesert regions in the Southwest. One of the most common small rodents in OK. Brusy areas & woodlands.  
Rodentia Muridae North American Deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus Lower Risk (nt) as P. m. anacapae and P. m. clemintis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Panhandle of Alaska and across N Canada, south through most of continental USA, excluding the SE and E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico; including many land bridge islands 74, 1175           Woodland forms climb very well and are semi-arboreal. Feeds on seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi and other foods; stores excess in caches. Occupies almost every habitat type, from boreal forest and tundra to desert, prairies, swamps and high mountains. Grassy & prairie areas  
Rodentia Muridae Northern Rock Deermouse Peromyscus nasutus Lower Risk C Colorado and SE Utah, south through New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas, to NW Coahuila, Mexico 1172           Semi-arboreal; climbs well, using its long tail for balance. Can hear frequencies to 100 kHz and may use ultrasonics when navigating through rocky terrain at night. Found mainly at higher elevations in rocky outcrops and talus slopes in the piñon-oak-juniper zone; also found on lava flows in New Mexico.    
Rodentia Muridae White-ankled Deermouse Peromyscus pectoralis Lower Risk SE New Mexico and C Texas, south along the Mexican Plateau and Cordillera Oriental to N Jalisco and Hidalgo, Mexico   49         Mainly terrestrial; usually found on rock ledges or in leaf litter. Feeds on juniper berries, acorns, hackberries, seeds and insects. Habitat is rocky outcrops, talus slopes, bluffs and oak-juniper woodlands. Rocky habitat (limestone outcrops).  
Rodentia Muridae Piñon Deermouse Peromyscus truei Lower Risk (nt) as P. t.. comanche, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) USA, SW and C Oregon to W and SE Colorado, south to N Baja California Norte, Mexico, Arizona and New Mexico; isolated populations in N Texas (comanche) and S Baja California Sur (lagunae) 1176 161         Hops away when disturbed, may climb a tree or disappear among rocks if pursued. Eats mostly piñon and juniper seeds, also takes insects and fungi. Prefers piñon and piñon-juniper stands, usually among rocks. Found in rocky areas with pinons or junipers.  
Rodentia Muridae Fulvous Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys fulvescens Lower Risk SC Arizona, NC, S and E Texas, to SW Missouri and W Mississippi, USA; south through much of Mexico, to W Nicaragua; excluding Yucatan Peninsula and Caribbean coastal lowlands.   174         A good climber. Eats mostly invertebrates in spring and summer, seeds in fall and winter. Two adults often share a nest and may travel together. Habitat is oldfields, thickets and mixed brushy grassland. A small mouse, but the largest of harvest mice. Tail noticeably longer than head & body. Found in brushy grasslands, prairies, & forest edges. All harvest mice have grooved incisors.  
Rodentia Muridae Eastern Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys humulis Lower Risk SE USA, from E Oklahoma and E Texas eastwards to the Atlantic seaboard, from S Maryland to peninsular Florida 685 565         Feeds on small seeds of grasses and weeds, also moth larvae and insects. Makes a ball-shaped nest of grass and plant fibers in low vegetation. Lives in oldfields, waste ground, and ditches or other wet areas, also broom sedge and brier patches; seldom found in forests. Very small. Shorter tail; dark ears  
Rodentia Muridae Western Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis Lower Risk SC British Columbia and SE Alberta, Canada; through much of W and NC USA; south to N Baja California Norte and through interior Mexico to C Oaxaca 1018 167         Feeds on small seeds, moth larvae, beetles and other insects. Nests are usually well concealed on the ground or low in vegetation. Prefers wet meadows and overgrown fields; also found in dry areas and clearing in forests. Medium-sized harvest mouse. Tail length about as long as head & body. Ears flesh-colored or yellowish.  
Rodentia Muridae Plains Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys montanus Lower Risk High Plains of C USA, from W South Dakota and E Wyoming to EC Texas and extreme SE Arizona; NE Sonora and Chihuahua to N Durango, Mexico   257         Feeds on flowers and seeds of weeds and grasses, also eats grasshoppers and other insects. Makes a ball-shaped nest on or just above the ground. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and cultivated fields. Very small. Tail shorter than head & body. Skulls frequently found in owl pellets.  
Rodentia Muridae Hispid Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Lower Risk (nt) as S. h. eremicus and S. h. insulicola, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SE USA, from S Nebraska to C Virginia and south to SE Arizona and peninsular Florida; NW Chihuahua to N Tamaulipas, south through interior Mexico at least to C Zacatecas and W San Luis Potosi 76, 1177           Mainly crepuscular, but can be active at any time. Broad distribution, abundance and daytime activity make this one of the more conspicuous small rodents. Habitat is tall-grass prairies, meadows, agricultural areas and oldfields; favors areas with dense vegetation but also occurs in mesquite desert with little ground cover. Has spread north from Mexico & Texas. Found in dense grasses or other dense vegetation.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern fox squirrel Sciurus niger   Texas north to Manitoba, east to the Atlantic Coast. 96, 880, 1644, 1645 479   introduced population       The largest & most common tree squirrel in OK. Larger & more brown or rusty than gray squirrel.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus   Eastern United States; Louisiana north to southern Manitoba and Nova Scotia east to the Atlantic Coast. 110, 259 168 Least concern         Forests & tall-grass prairies; rocky slopes & moist ravines.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Texas Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys elator Listed by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department as Threatened. Southwestern Oklahoma and northcentral Texas.   232 Vulnerable     Habitat is open mesquite grassland on clay or clay-loam soils. Probably no longer occurs in Oklahoma (Caire et al., 1989).  Reviewed by Carter et al. (1985, Mammalian Species No. 232) and Williams et al. (1993).  Sexual dimorphism and morphometric variation reviewed by Best (1987, 1993d) and molecular systematic relationships by Mantooth et al. (2000).  Most active on dark moonless nights. Makes large mounds, usually under mesquites, with complex tunnels and multiple entrances. Has 4 toes & a "banner" tuft on its tail. This Kangaroo rat has not been recorded in OK for about 75 years (in a sorghum field near Chattanooga in Comanche Co.).  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Ord's Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys ordii   Southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta (Canada) and southeastern Washington south through Great Plains and intermontane basins of western USA, to Mexican Plateau as far south as Hidalgo (Mexico). 560, 693, 1099, 1352 353 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in dry grasslands, desert scrub, piñon-juniper and sagebrush, almost always on fine sandy soils or sand dunes. Revised by Setzer (1949) and reviewed by Garrison and Best (1990, Mammalian Species No. 353); subspecies follow Williams et al. (1993).  Does not include compactus, see Schmidly and Hendricks (1976), Baumgardner and Schmidly (1981), and comment under that species.  Williams et al. (1993) provide a list of what they consider as valid subspecies.  Most active on dark cloudy nights, seldom above ground by day or in bad weather. Makes deep burrows, with entrances often under shrubs or on banks. Has 5 hind toes; rarely has a white -tipped tail. Inhabits arid areas with loose or sandy soils; especially dunes.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Hispid Pocket Mouse Chaetodipus hispidus   Great Plains from southern North Dakota to southeastern Arizona and western Louisiana (USA), south to Tamaulipas and Hidalgo (Mexico).   320 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in grassy areas in plains and deserts, usually on sandy soils. Revised by Glass (1947); subspecies listed by Hall (1981) and Williams et al. (1993).  Reviewed by Paulson (1988b, Mammalian Species No. 320).  Type species of monotypic subgenus Burtognathus Hoffmeister.  Does not hop as much as other pocket mice. Active year-round, relying on stored seeds in winter in northern part of range. The largest pocket mouse in OK. Found in grasslands with sandy or loose soils.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Plains Pocket Mouse Perognathus flavescens   Great Plains and intermountain basins from Minnesota and northern Utah (USA) to N Chihuahua (Mexico). 694, 1337 525 Lower Risk (lc)   Eats seeds of grass, sedge, forbs and corn; also eats insects and tree seeds. Habitat is sand dunes and sandy washes in grasslands and sagebrush; also edges of agricultural areas and open stands of conifers. Reviewed by Williams (1978b).  Hoffmeister (1986) considered apache a distinct species.  Subspecies reviewed by Williams et al. (1993).  Will climb vegetation when foraging. Found in sandy soils & sparse vegetation. Three subspecies probably meet in OK.  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Silky Pocket Mouse Perognathus flavus   Southwestern Great Plains and intermountain plateaus from South Dakota, eastern Wyoming, and southeastern Utah (USA) south to Sonora and Puebla (Mexico). 562, 1182, 1338 471 Lower Risk (nt) as P. f. goodpasteri; otherwise Lower Risk (lc).   Mostly sifts through sand for small seeds, but may climb stalks to harvest green seeds. Lives in dry grasslands and deserts, almost always with some grassy cover and sparse shrubs. Revised by Baker (1954); subspecies listed by Hall (1981) and reviewed by Williams et al. (1993).  Wilson (1973) considered merriami conspecific, but Anderson (1972) Lee and Engstrom (1991) documented species distinctness of merriami from flavus (see below).  Reviewed by Best and Skupski (1994a, Mammalian Species No. 471). Found in rocky or sandy soils  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Merriam's Pocket Mouse Perognathus merriami   Southeastern New Mexico east to south Texas (USA), east from northern Chihuahua to Tamaulipas (Mexico). 1246 473 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in dry grassland and deserts with short sparse vegetation; found on sand gravel and hard-packed soils. Synonymized with flavus by Wilson (1973), but Lee and Engstrom (1991) considered merriami a separate species based on biochemical genetics, as did Anderson (1972) using morphological criteria.  Reviewed by Best and Skupski (1994b, Mammalian Species No. 473).  Similar to Silky Pocket Mouse. Breeds March-December; litter size is 3-6.    
Rodentia Muridae House Mouse Mus musculus Lower risk Every state in the United States. 92, 754             Lives in close association with humans. Has spread along water courses & into fields & grasslands.  
Rodentia Muridae Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus Lower risk Scattered across the United States but very scarce, in not absent, from the Rocky Mountains (might looks this way because of sampling effort). 755, 756, 757, 758             Lives in close association with humans. Loves garbage. Usually forces roof rats (if present) out of bldgs.  
Rodentia Muridae Roof Rat Rattus rattus Lower risk Distributed around the outside of the country.  Not many records of this species being collected in the interior of the country (this might be because of sampling effort). 759, 760             Lives in close association with humans. May have entered state through Red River Valley.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Black-tailed prairie dog Cynomys ludovicianus Decreasing Montana south to eastern Nebraska, western Texas, New Mexico, and southeast Arizona. 105 535 Least concern       was extirpated in AZ, reintroduced to Las Cienegas National Preserve Large, chunky ground squirrel with a short tail. Sociable; live in towns w/ many burrows, mostly in shortgrass prairies.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans   Eastern half f the United States from southern Canada to Florida. 1021, 1022 78 Least concern       subspecies G. v. saturates occurs throughout; G. v. texensis possibly occurs in extreme SW corner; G. v. volans possibly occurs in extreme northern counties Small with gliding membrane connecting front & back legs. Primarily nocturnal.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus   Great Plains, from central Texas to eastern Utah, Ohio, and south central Canada. 103, 573 103 Least concern         Small with (usually) 13 alternating dark (w/spots) & light stripes. Found in grassy or open wooded or shrublands. Hibernate.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Woodchuck Marmota monax   From eastern Oklahoma, northern Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia north to Canada over to Alaska and possibly south into northern Idaho. 107 591 Least concern         A very large squirrel. Hilly & rocky areas in open woodlands with fields or meadows.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis   Eastern Texas north to Saskatchewan Canada and east to the Atlantic Coast. 94, 95 480 Least concern       subspecies is S. c. carolinensis Medium sized tree squirrel. Found in timbered areas; in parks & golf courses.  
Carnivora Canidae Eastern Coyote Canis latrans Common Throughout continental US. 265 (C), 1126, 1127 (B), 1267 79         Larger than western coyote. Slide symbol: B -- specialized behavior; C -- Close-up of head region.  
Carnivora Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Common Throughout the US except in the southwest. 435 (W), 436 (Y), 582 537         This species helps keep small mammal populations in check; white tail tip. Slide symbol: W -- female with young; Y -- young, may be newborn. Introduced from Europe into Virginia about 1750; there may have been a native red fox & they may have interbred. First reported in OK in 1854 in the Red River Valley  
Carnivora Canidae Swift Fox Vulpes velox Common Eastern WY, eastern CO, eastern NM, western SD, western NE, western KS, OK, and TX. 583 122       desert Similar to kit fox, with longer tail and larger ears.  Prefers more arid habitats. The smallest American fox; about the size of a large house cat. Live in arid areas. Easily trapped & poisoned; their numbers are declining.  
Carnivora Canidae Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Common Nationwide except for the northwest. 584 189         Black dorsal stripe on tail; climbs trees. Lives in wooded areas. They often climb trees. When forests are cleared, red foxes usually move in.  
Carnivora Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Common Southwestern Canada, everywhere south of Canada/US border to South America except arid desert areas of southwest US and northwest Mexico. 1348 570         Prefers rodents, but feeds on a broad array of small vertebrates.  Agile swimmer.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, but not southern populations. Secretive. May be found in gopher or squirrel burrows, crevices, brushpiles, or among tree roots. Can climb trees after birds or eggs; can swim.  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Mink Neovison vison Common Alaska and contiguous 48 states, except for arid west and southwest. 1129 608         Though taken for their fur, ranched mink have relieved the pressure on wild ones.  Mink eat crayfish, fish, frogs, and small rodents along with any other animals they can capture and kill. Live alone (except during breeding season) along waterways. Their den is usually a hole in a bank or behind a pile of debris in a stream.  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Badger Taxidea taxus Common within range Western and central North America, from central Canada to central Mexico. 701 (C), 702 (A), 703 (H) 26         Because of their secretive and fossorial (digging) habits badgers are not often seen.  Persecuted by humans, though sometimes inadvertently when taking poisoned meat meant for wolves and coyotes. Slide symbol: C -- Close-up of head region. A -- anatomical specialization. H -- habitat or sign of animals activity. Dig with large front claws; they feed on burrowing animals.  
Carnivora Mustelidae Northern River Otter Lontra canadensis Common in the northern part of its range, uncommon to extirpated in southern parts of its range. Alaska and most of the continental US except for much of the southwestern continental US. 802 (A), 859 (W) 587         Playful, likes to slide on the snow.  Eats fish and other aquatic or amphibious animals. Slide symbol: A - anatomical specialization. W - female with young. Reported very rare or extirpated in 1952. New  projects have allowed them to reoccupy areas. Seventeen  were released in 1984 & 1985  
Carnivora Mephitidae Eastern Spotted Skunk Spilogale putorius Unknown Central and southeastern continental US.   511         Other than what is known about skunks in general, not much is known about this species specifically. Secretive. Usually found in rocky canyons & outcrops in woodlands & prairies. Often make dens under buildings  
Carnivora Mephitidae Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Common Throughout continental US except a small area in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 280 173         Sometimes de-scented and kept as pets (not recommended).  Good "mouser" and will use cat litter boxes. One of the best known mammals of OK (by its smell). Found in woods, brushy areas & farms. May live in family groups. Eat small animals including insects; also eggs.  
Carnivora Procyonidae Ringtail, Bassarisk, or Cacomistle Bassariscus astutus Common Southwestern US from the Gulf of Mexico to the west coast. 858 327         Nocturnal and seldom seen.  Good climber of rocks and trees.  Solitary and territorial, but can be densely populated in good habitat. Found in rocky areas. Eat small animals including insects; also eat fruits & berries  
Carnivora Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor Common Common throughout US except portions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. 140, 709 (S) 119         Raccoons are extremely adaptable and can live in a wide range of temperatures.  They are found virtually anywhere there is water.  Their diet is extremely varied including plant and animal material.  The forefeet of raccoons end in highly sensitive hand-l Slide symbol: S -- skull. Most common in woodlands and near water. Omnivorous.  
Carnivora Felidae Mountain Lion, Puma, or Cougar Puma concolor Stable in the western, Endangered in Florida. Western contiguous US, small population in Florida. 275, 276, 586           Cougars are active mainly at dusk, night, and dawn.  Most of their prey consists of larger animals such as ungulates, but turtles, rabbit-sized animals, coyotes, and other cougars are taken.  The name "concolor" comes from the even coloration that differs Recent records are sightings only. Also called Pumas & Cougars. Primary prey = deer, but also eat rabbits, prairie dogs and other small animals. People hunt them when they eat livestock.  
Carnivora Felidae Bobcat Lynx rufus Rare or common, depending on geographic region. All of contiguous US, except for parts of California, Utah, Colorado,  agricultural areas of the midwest and coastal areas of the midAtlantic states. 819, 1293 563         As with the Canada lynx, bobcats are very secretive and seldom observed even in areas it occupies.  Slightly smaller than the lynx, it is capable of taking adult white-tailed deer.  Though mainly a carnivore,  areas a large array of plant and animal mater Secretive; usually solitary. Live in dry areas of the west as well as in dense forests, lowlands, & mountains of the east. May sometimes be seen in the day. Eat small animals; very rarely eat livestock as large as sheep.  
Artiodactyla Cervidae Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus Common Southern Alaska to central Mexico, east across US and Canada to South Dakota Nebraska, Kansas, and western Texas.   219           Noted for their bouncing gait. Found in arid areas and sparsely wooded areas. In mountainous areas, they may migrate to low country for winters.  
Artiodactyla Cervidae White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Common Throughout North America, except northern Canada and very arid areas of western US. 1313 388           The most important big game animals in Oklahoma. Found primarily at edges of woodlands. Uncontrolled burning & livestock overgrazing are the main destroyers of deer habitat.  
Artiodactyla Antilocapridae Pronghorn Antelope Antilocapra americana Common West-central US with some extensions across the border with Canada and some ranging into central Mexico. 166, 717,718, 823, 1310 90       Open areas   Formerly abundant in the western two-thirds of the state, but now mostly extirpated. Requires habitat where it can see and run long distances. About 500 animals now have made a comeback in the Panhandle.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Elliot's short-tailed shrew Blarina hylophaga Least concern Southern Nebraska and southwestern Iowa south to southern Texas; east to Missouri and northwestern Arkansas; eastern Oklahoma and most of Kansas; extending into northern Louisiana.   878           Difficult to tell from B. Carolinensis except by karyotype. Slightly venomous.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Least shrew Cryptotis parva Least concern Concentrated in the southwestern United States.  From Florida up to New York and reaches as far west as Texas and South Dakota. 957 43           One of the smallest mammals in Oklahoma. Sociable; prefers grasslands.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous US and Alaska 39, 223 356 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Eptesicini Hibernate in caves; nursery colonies in bldgs. Also roost in trees; crevices.Slow flight near treetops  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis Lower Risk (lc) Central and eastern United States 40, 655, 815 183 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini Less common in the West. Migratory; present in summer; maybe year-round in some areas. Roosts in tree foliage.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous United States and Hawaii 656, 041, 042 185 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini; *Status is Low Risk eith the exception of L. c. semotus The largest bat in OK. Migratory; roosts on twigs or branches; emerges late  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Seminole Bat Lasiurus seminolus Lower Risk (lc) Florida and Texas to Oklahoma and Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York   280 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini Has only been taken twice in OK. Roosts in Spanish Moss, Oaks, Hickory, Pines  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Evening Bat Nycticeius humeralis Lower Risk (lc) Southern tip of Texas to Nebraska, the Great Lakes area, and Pennsylvania south to Florida and the Gulf Coast 232 23 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Nycticeiini Hollow trees, bldgs. Forage in early evenings & just before dawn. Slow, steady flight.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Pipistrelle Perimyotis subflavus Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States excluding Maine and southern Florida 38, 654 228 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Pipistrellini Caves, crevices, bldgs. Apparently lives in trees in summer. Flies early. More associated with forests than W. Pipistrelle  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Townsend's Big-eared bat Corynorhinus townsendii Vulnerable Western United States, east to the Rocky Mountains, a few scattered populations in the eastern United States 229 175 Vulnerable       TRIBE Plecotini; *Status is Vulnerable as Plecotus townsendii; Endangered as P. ingens and P. virginianus Live & hibernate (singly or in groups) in gypsum caves & caverns under granite boulders. May forage close to ground.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Pallid Bat Antrozous pallidus Lower Risk (lc) Semi-arid Western United States, east to western edge of Kansas 230 213 Lower Risk (lc)         Crevices, caves, old bldgs; may hibernate in caves in the state. Fly well after dark. Probably feeds on the ground.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the United States except extreme southern protions of southern states.  Also occurs in southeastern Alaska. 658 172 Lower Risk (lc)         Migrant or nomadic. Hollow trees, behind bark, bldgs. Flies late.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Southeastern Myotis Myotis austroriparius Lower Risk (lc) Southeastern United States including Florida, north to Indiana and North Carolina, west to Texas and sooutheastern Oklahoma   332 Lower Risk (lc)         Caves, bldgs, bridges, culverts  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Western Small-footed Bat Myotis ciliolabrum Lower Risk (lc) Much of the western United States   670 Lower Risk (lc)            
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Small-footed Myotis Myotis leibii Lower Risk (lc) Southern Maine, south to Georgia and west to eastern Oklahoma   547 Lower Risk (lc)         Flies in the evening while it is still light. Probably roost in crevices & caves.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Lower Risk (lc) Most of US, except Texas to Nebraska, and extreme southern portions of southern states 224, 225, 814 142 Lower Risk (lc)         Crevices, caves, houses  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Dark-nosed Small-footed Myotis Myotis melanorhinus Not evaluated Washington to western Oklahoma, extending southwest to the western tip of Texas     Not evaluated            
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Indiana Myotis Myotis sodalis Endangered New Hampshire to Florida panhandle, west to Wisconsin and Oklahoma 391 163 Endangered         Nearest permanent populations are in Missouri & Arkansas.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Cave Myotis Myotis velifer Lower Risk (lc) Central and southwestern Texas, southeastern New Mexico and Arizona, Texas panhandle and central Oklahoma and Kansas   149 Lower Risk (lc)         Largest Myotis in OK. Hibernates in large cave colonies; roosts in caves, bldgs, bridges.  
Chiroptera Molossidae Big Free-tailed Bat Nyctinomops macrotis Lower risk (lc) Southern and western Texas to southern California; southern Nevada, Utah and Colorado; reported from Iowa and Kansas 891 351 Lower Risk (lc)         A wanderer from the southwestern deserts and Mexico. Crevices, buildings. Fly late. Some authors assign this bat to genus Nyctinomops.  
Chiroptera Molossidae Brazilian/Mexican Free-tailed Bat Tadarida brasiliensis Lower Risk (nt) From Oregon to North Carolina and south 1549 331 Lower Risk (nt)         Migratory. Roosts in caves, trees, bldgs. Large nursery colonies are found in gypsum caves from which millions of bats emerge in late summer.  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Black-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus californicus Lower risk Hidalgo and southern Queretaro to northern Sonora and Baja California, Mexico; north to southwestern Oregon and central Washington, southern Idaho, eastern Colorado, southern South Dakota, western Missouri, and northwestern Arkansas. Apparently isolated population in southwestern Montana. 060, 245, 1347 530       Sagebrush flats, overgrazed pastures and rangelands, deserts, prairies and agricultural lands. Nocturnal or crepuscular; rests by day in a shallow soil depression, usually in the shade of a bush. Uses speed and agility to avoid predators; usually solitary, but may be seen in pairs or larger groups. Associated with arid, open areas with scattered thickets or shrub patches.  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Swamp Rabbit Sylvilagus aquaticus Lower Risk Southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana, southwestern Missouri to southeastern Kansas southward through extreme western Kentucky and western Tennessee to eastern Oklahoma, eastern Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and NW South Carolina.   151       Swamps, marshes and bottomlands. Active at dawn and in the late afternoon in spring and summer, mostly nocturnal in winter. Swims well, unlike most rabbits; very territorial. Largest cottontail. Found near stream & river banks, ponds & lakes. Range is declining due to draining, clearing, damming.  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Desert Rabbit Sylvilagus audubonii Lower Risk Northeastern Puebla and western Veracruz, Mexico, to north central Montana and southwestern North Dakota, north central Utah, central Nevada, and northcentral California, south to Baja California and central Sinaloa, Mexico. 059, 1188, 1858 106       Habitat is varied, maily in dry lowlands including deserts, grasslands, riparian brush and pinon-juniper woodlands. Most active soon after dawn or at dusk. Retreats from heat of day into burrows made by another species or a shady thicket. Medium-sized cottontail; found in arid grasslands, brush & rocky areas.  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Eastern Cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Lower Risk Northern, central, and western Venezuela and adjacent islands and adjacent Colombia through Central America (disjunct in part); to northwestern Mexico, Arizona, north and east to North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Michigan, New York and Massachusetts, Atlantic Coast south and Florida Gulf Coast west to Mexico; also southern Saskatchewan, southern Ontario and south central Quebec, Canada. 058, 953 136       Thickets and old fields, edges of hardwood forest, farmland, prairies and swamps. One of most familiar rabbits, mainly nocturnal but may be active and dawns or dusk. Sleeps under brush piles or in thickets or dense grass. Most common cottontail in OK, A moderately large cottontail; ears shorter than Desert Cottontail. Associated with stream valleys, grassy, forested, & brushy areas; possibly in dunes.  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Eastern mole Scalopus aquaticus Least concern Throughout south eastern United States north to Massachussetts to Minnesota. 647, 648 105         Throws up large molehills when excavating deep tunnels. Makes shallow burrows for feeding that may be used only once or may be used for several years. Preferes fields or woods with soft moist soils. Burrows in moist, loamy & sandy soils. Eliminate many insect pests & aerate soil, but may damage lawns  
Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana least concern found everywhere except NV, MT, UT, ND, SD, WI, MN, WY 3, 4, 630, 828, 829, 830 40         Nocturnal, introduced to the western states in the early 1900s Usually solitary, nocturnal  
Cingulata Dasypodidae     Range has spread north & east since 1900 Nine-banded Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus least concern NM, CO, TX, OK, NE, KS, MO, AR, LA, TN, MS, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC 53, 242 162         always born in litters of 4 identical (same sex) quadruplets Nocturnal, but may be out on cloudy days. Range has spread north & east since 1900. Capable of carrying leprosy bacteria.  
Rodentia Erethizontidae Common Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum common   82, 870 29         active throughout year Found in forested & rocky areas. Can climb trees. Range may be expanding.  
Rodentia Myocastoridae Nutria Myocastor coypus common   1019 398         semiaquatic Natural home = South America. Introduced into U.S. over 80 years ago; into OK (Hinton & Fort Sill) in the early 1950's as a commercial furbearer. Make nests of large piles of cattails, reeds, & sedges; often destroy habitat for other wildlife.