Mammals of North Dakota

Order

Family

Common Name

Species Name

Status

Distribution

Mammal Image Library #s

Mammalian Species #

IUCN Status

Introduced

Diet

Biome

Notes

ND Notes

ND Citations

Rodentia Muridae Prairie Vole Microtus ochrogaster Lower Risk Northern and Central Great Plains - EC Alberta to S Manitoba, Canada; south to N Texas Panhandle, SW Oklahoma and Arkansas; eastwards to C Tennessee, westernmost West Virginia, and W Ohio; relictual populations in C Colorado, N New Mexico and coastal prairies of SW Louisiana and adjacent Texas 1160 355         Most active at dawn or dusk. Unlike most voles, forms monogamous pairs that share a nest; both parents care for young and defend their home range. Older offspring may remain with parents and help tend a new litter. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and agricultural areas, usually on dry sandy soils at lower elevations. inhabits tall-grass communities and upland habitats  
Rodentia Muridae Meadow Vole Microtus pennsylvanicus U.S. ESA - Endangered as M. p. dukecampbelli; IUCN - Vulnerable as M. p. dukecampbelli, Lower Risk (nt) as M. p. admiraltiae, M. p. kincaidi, M. p. provectus and M. p. shattucki, not evaluated as M. p. chihuahuensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Meadowlands interspersed across boreal and mixed coniferous-deciduous biomes of North America: C Alaska to Labrador, including Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, Canada; south in Rocky Mountains to N New Mexico, in Great Plains to N Kansas, and in Appalachians and along eastern seaboard to N Georgia and South Carolina; outlier populations in W New Mexico and peninsular Florida, and in N Chihuahua, Mexico 70 159         Active night or day; swims well but cannot climb. Highly prolific: breeds March-November or year-round; litter size is about 6; one female can have 17 litters per year (in captivity). Aggressive when caught, does not hesitate to bite. Habitat is damp meadows, roadsides, orchards and other areas with a thick cover of lush grass. inhabits moist meadows, marshes, and riparian habitat Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Bushy-tailed Woodrat Neotoma cinerea Lower Risk SE Yukon and westernmost Northwest Territories, south through Alaskan Panhandle, British Columbia and W Alberta, Canada; in W USA, from Washington to W Dakotas as far south as EC California, S Nevada, N Arizona, and NW New Mexico 1166, 1351 564         Adapted for cool climates, using its busy tail as a wrap in cold weather; cannot survive high temperatures. Seldom constructs an elaborate house, but will accumulate mounds of sticks and other rubbish around the nest site. Lives on rocky outcrops, talus slopes, caves and cliffs, in canyons and mountainous areas. bushy tail looks similar to a squirrels tail  
Rodentia Muridae Common Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Data Deficient as O. z. ripensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) North America, north to the tree line, including Newfoundland; south to the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande and lower Colorado River valleys. Introduced to Czech Republic in 1905 and now widespread in the Palearctic, including C and N Europe, most of Ukraine, Russia and Siberia, adjacent parts of Mongolia and scattered through China, NE Korea, and Honshu Island, Japan; also into southernmost Argentina 1162, 1163 141         Mainly nocturnal, but also active on overcast or rainy days; more likely to be seen by day than other large semiaquatic rodents. Swims well and is more buoyant than a beaver. Habitat is shallow marshes with abundant cattails; less common along streams or in wooded swamps. requires body of water Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Northern Grasshopper Mouse Onychomys leucogaster Data Deficient as O. l. durranti, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) S Alberta, S Saskatchewan, and SW Manitoba, Canada, south through much of Great Plains and Great Basin region of USA, to NC Sonora and N Tamaulipas, Mexico 253, 1017, 1169 87         Nocturnal; most active on dark moonless nights. Much more carnivorous than most mice, taking large scorpions and beetles and some small vertebrates; also eats seeds and plant material. Mostly very solitary. Habitat is deserts, grasslands, prairies and shrub steppe; favors areas with rather sparse vegetation and sandy soils. behavior similar to canids  
Rodentia Muridae Southern Red-backed Vole Clethrionomys gapperi Data Deficient as M. g. solus, Lower Risk (nt) as C. g. maurus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Most of Canada from N British Columbia to Labrador, excluding Newfoundland; south in the Appalachians to N Georgia and NW South Carolina, in the Great Plains to N Iowa, and in the Rockies to C New Mexico and EC Arizona; extralimital isolates in NW and E Pennsylvania and S New Jersey 69 146?         Active at any time, but tends to be more diurnal in winter and mainly nocturnal in summer. Travels under leaf litter and fallen logs but does not construct an underground burrow system. Lives in damp forests with fallen logs, also mountain meadows, clear-cuts and bogs. restricted to habitats with free water due to high water requirements Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Sagebrush Vole Lemmiscus curtatus Lower Risk Sagebrush steppe and desert from S Alberta and SE Saskatchewan, Canada, south to EC California and NW Colorado, including the Columbia Basin of interior Oregon and Washington 947, 1339           Mainly crepuscular, but can be active at any time. Lives colonially in a shared burrow system, usually built under cover with multiple entrances. Habitat is dry areas with sagebrush or rabbitbrush, on stony soil. may use "cow chips" as temporary shelter  
Rodentia Muridae White-footed Deermouse Peromyscus leucopus Data Deficient as P. l. ammodytes, otherwise Lower Risk S Alberta to S Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, Canada; throughout much of C and E USA, excluding Florida; southwards to N Durango and along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec and NW Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico 73, 251, 1174 247         Mainly terrestrial, but climbs well and may forage or nest well above the ground. Swims well, occupies many islands in lakes. Habitat is deciduous and mixed forests, hedgerows, brushy areas, croplands and dry semidesert regions in the Southwest. prefer habitats with three dimensional structure Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae North American Deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus Lower Risk (nt) as P. m. anacapae and P. m. clemintis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Panhandle of Alaska and across N Canada, south through most of continental USA, excluding the SE and E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico; including many land bridge islands 74, 1175           Woodland forms climb very well and are semi-arboreal. Feeds on seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi and other foods; stores excess in caches. Occupies almost every habitat type, from boreal forest and tundra to desert, prairies, swamps and high mountains. probably the most abundant vertebrate on the plains Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Western Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis Lower Risk SC British Columbia and SE Alberta, Canada; through much of W and NC USA; south to N Baja California Norte and through interior Mexico to C Oaxaca 1018 167         Feeds on small seeds, moth larvae, beetles and other insects. Nests are usually well concealed on the ground or low in vegetation. Prefers wet meadows and overgrown fields; also found in dry areas and clearing in forests. strictly nocturnal  
Rodentia Muridae Plains Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys montanus Lower Risk High Plains of C USA, from W South Dakota and E Wyoming to EC Texas and extreme SE Arizona; NE Sonora and Chihuahua to N Durango, Mexico   257         Feeds on flowers and seeds of weeds and grasses, also eats grasshoppers and other insects. Makes a ball-shaped nest on or just above the ground. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and cultivated fields. does well in grazed rangeland  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern fox squirrel Sciurus niger   Texas north to Manitoba, east to the Atlantic Coast. 96, 880, 1644, 1645 479   introduced population       prefers open woodland Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Least chipmunk Tamias minimus   North central states including Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan.  Also occupies much of the Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains. 108 653 Least concern         occurs in more varied habitats than most squirrels  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus   Eastern United States; Louisiana north to southern Manitoba and Nova Scotia east to the Atlantic Coast. 110, 259 168 Least concern         does not occur in open country Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae North American red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus   Alaska and throughout Canada; northeastern United States, south to northwestern South Carolina. 111, 260, 826, 827 586 Least concern         inhabits coniferous forests Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Heteromyidae Ord's Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys ordii   Southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta (Canada) and southeastern Washington south through Great Plains and intermontane basins of western USA, to Mexican Plateau as far south as Hidalgo (Mexico). 560, 693, 1099, 1352 353 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in dry grasslands, desert scrub, piñon-juniper and sagebrush, almost always on fine sandy soils or sand dunes. Revised by Setzer (1949) and reviewed by Garrison and Best (1990, Mammalian Species No. 353); subspecies follow Williams et al. (1993).  Does not include compactus, see Schmidly and Hendricks (1976), Baumgardner and Schmidly (1981), and comment under that species.  Williams et al. (1993) provide a list of what they consider as valid subspecies.  Most active on dark cloudy nights, seldom above ground by day or in bad weather. Makes deep burrows, with entrances often under shrubs or on banks. can live indefinitely without water  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Hispid Pocket Mouse Chaetodipus hispidus   Great Plains from southern North Dakota to southeastern Arizona and western Louisiana (USA), south to Tamaulipas and Hidalgo (Mexico).   320 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in grassy areas in plains and deserts, usually on sandy soils. Revised by Glass (1947); subspecies listed by Hall (1981) and Williams et al. (1993).  Reviewed by Paulson (1988b, Mammalian Species No. 320).  Type species of monotypic subgenus Burtognathus Hoffmeister.  Does not hop as much as other pocket mice. Active year-round, relying on stored seeds in winter in northern part of range. seldom venture above ground in winter (each seed cache)  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Olive-backed Pocket Mouse Perognathus fasciatus   Great Plains from southeastern Alberta, Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to northeastern Utah, southern Colorado and eastern South Dakota.   303 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in desert scrub and dry grassland on loose sand or clay soils, mainly in hilly or upland areas with sparse vegetation. Revised by Williams and Genoways (1979).  Reviewed by Manning and Jones (1988a, Mammalian Species No. 303).  Active year-round, but may enter torpor in cold weather. prefers short-grass rangeland  
Rodentia Heteromyidae Plains Pocket Mouse Perognathus flavescens   Great Plains and intermountain basins from Minnesota and northern Utah (USA) to N Chihuahua (Mexico). 694, 1337 525 Lower Risk (lc)   Eats seeds of grass, sedge, forbs and corn; also eats insects and tree seeds. Habitat is sand dunes and sandy washes in grasslands and sagebrush; also edges of agricultural areas and open stands of conifers. Reviewed by Williams (1978b).  Hoffmeister (1986) considered apache a distinct species.  Subspecies reviewed by Williams et al. (1993).  Will climb vegetation when foraging. prefers sandy soils with vegetative cover  
Rodentia Muridae House Mouse Mus musculus Lower risk Every state in the United States. 92, 754             from Europe; frequently associated with man-made structures Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus Lower risk Scattered across the United States but very scarce, in not absent, from the Rocky Mountains (might looks this way because of sampling effort). 755, 756, 757, 758             from Europe; possibly the most destructive of all mammals Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Black-tailed prairie dog Cynomys ludovicianus Decreasing Montana south to eastern Nebraska, western Texas, New Mexico, and southeast Arizona. 105 535 Least concern       was extirpated in AZ, reintroduced to Las Cienegas National Preserve keep vegetation surrounding burrows shortly cropped  
Rodentia Sciuridae Northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus   Alaska and Canada, northwestern United States to southern California and western South Dakota, northeastern United States to southern Appalachian Mountains. 1020 229 Least concern         highly arboreal; nocturnal; great gliders Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans   Eastern half f the United States from southern Canada to Florida. 1021, 1022 78 Least concern       subspecies G. v. saturates occurs throughout; G. v. texensis possibly occurs in extreme SW corner; G. v. volans possibly occurs in extreme northern counties    
Rodentia Sciuridae Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus   Great Plains, from central Texas to eastern Utah, Ohio, and south central Canada. 103, 573 103 Least concern         abundant along rights-of-way and roadsides  
Rodentia Sciuridae Woodchuck Marmota monax   From eastern Oklahoma, northern Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia north to Canada over to Alaska and possibly south into northern Idaho. 107 591 Least concern         hibernate 4 to 6 months per year Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Franklin's ground squirrel Poliocitellus franklinii   Northern Great Plains; south central Canada south to Kansas, Illinois, and Indiana. 104 724 Least concern         occurs in tall-grass prairie  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis   Eastern Texas north to Saskatchewan Canada and east to the Atlantic Coast. 94, 95 480 Least concern       subspecies is S. c. carolinensis prefers dense woodland Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Richardson's ground squirrel Urocitellus richardsonii   Northern Great Plains; southwestern Canada, North Dakota, Northeastern South Dakota, western Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa.   243 Least concern         territorial  
Carnivora Canidae Eastern Coyote Canis latrans Common Throughout continental US. 265 (C), 1126, 1127 (B), 1267 79         Larger than western coyote. Slide symbol: B -- specialized behavior; C -- Close-up of head region. Benefiting from agricultural development Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Common Throughout the US except in the southwest. 435 (W), 436 (Y), 582 537         This species helps keep small mammal populations in check; white tail tip. Slide symbol: W -- female with young; Y -- young, may be newborn. May have been introduced Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Canidae Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Common Nationwide except for the northwest. 584 189         Black dorsal stripe on tail; climbs trees. frequently climbs trees Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae Ermine or Short-tailed Weasel Mustela erminea Common All of Canada, northeastern US, Great Lakes region, northwestern US. 588 (P), 1051 (P) 195         Color varies seasonally, mainly eats rodents and young rabbits, as well as small vertebrates and invertebrates.  Nocturnal. Slide symbol: P -- unusual color phase. Circumboreal distribution Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Common Southwestern Canada, everywhere south of Canada/US border to South America except arid desert areas of southwest US and northwest Mexico. 1348 570         Prefers rodents, but feeds on a broad array of small vertebrates.  Agile swimmer.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, but not southern populations. males feed on mammals as large as snow shoe hares; females feed on mouse-sized rodents Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae Least Weasel Mustela nivalis Common Alaska, Midwest, Great Lakes, and (No Suggestions) states. 440, 1214, 1350 454         Avoids woodlands.  Active at all times of day and all times of the year.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, southern populations do not.  Females have more than one litter per year. smallest weasel in North Dakota  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Mink Neovison vison Common Alaska and contiguous 48 states, except for arid west and southwest. 1129 608         Though taken for their fur, ranched mink have relieved the pressure on wild ones.  Mink eat crayfish, fish, frogs, and small rodents along with any other animals they can capture and kill. inhabits areas near water Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae American Badger Taxidea taxus Common within range Western and central North America, from central Canada to central Mexico. 701 (C), 702 (A), 703 (H) 26         Because of their secretive and fossorial (digging) habits badgers are not often seen.  Persecuted by humans, though sometimes inadvertently when taking poisoned meat meant for wolves and coyotes. Slide symbol: C -- Close-up of head region. A -- anatomical specialization. H -- habitat or sign of animals activity. Feed on any small mammal easily obtained  
Carnivora Mephitidae Eastern Spotted Skunk Spilogale putorius Unknown Central and southeastern continental US.   511         Other than what is known about skunks in general, not much is known about this species specifically. prefers forest edge habitat  
Carnivora Mephitidae Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Common Throughout continental US except a small area in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 280 173         Sometimes de-scented and kept as pets (not recommended).  Good "mouser" and will use cat litter boxes. commensal with man Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor Common Common throughout US except portions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. 140, 709 (S) 119         Raccoons are extremely adaptable and can live in a wide range of temperatures.  They are found virtually anywhere there is water.  Their diet is extremely varied including plant and animal material.  The forefeet of raccoons end in highly sensitive hand-l Slide symbol: S -- skull. Does not wash food Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Felidae Mountain Lion, Puma, or Cougar Puma concolor Stable in the western, Endangered in Florida. Western contiguous US, small population in Florida. 275, 276, 586           Cougars are active mainly at dusk, night, and dawn.  Most of their prey consists of larger animals such as ungulates, but turtles, rabbit-sized animals, coyotes, and other cougars are taken.  The name "concolor" comes from the even coloration that differs possible Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Felidae Bobcat Lynx rufus Rare or common, depending on geographic region. All of contiguous US, except for parts of California, Utah, Colorado,  agricultural areas of the midwest and coastal areas of the midAtlantic states. 819, 1293 563         As with the Canada lynx, bobcats are very secretive and seldom observed even in areas it occupies.  Slightly smaller than the lynx, it is capable of taking adult white-tailed deer.  Though mainly a carnivore,  areas a large array of plant and animal mater most abundant in areas with broken terrain which provides cover Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Artiodactyla Cervidae Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus Common Southern Alaska to central Mexico, east across US and Canada to South Dakota Nebraska, Kansas, and western Texas.   219           common in open country  
Artiodactyla Cervidae White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Common Throughout North America, except northern Canada and very arid areas of western US. 1313 388           most common at forest edge Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Artiodactyla Antilocapridae Pronghorn Antelope Antilocapra americana Common West-central US with some extensions across the border with Canada and some ranging into central Mexico. 166, 717,718, 823, 1310 90       Open areas   fastest land animal in North America  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda Least concern North-central and northeastern United States and adjacent provinces of southern Canada.   261           venomous; active day and night Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous US and Alaska 39, 223 356 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Eptesicini active later than most hibernating species Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis Lower Risk (lc) Central and eastern United States 40, 655, 815 183 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini broadest distribution of any new world bat; roosts in trees; interfemoral membrane heavily furred Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous United States and Hawaii 656, 041, 042 185 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini; *Status is Low Risk eith the exception of L. c. semotus roosts in trees; interfemoral membrane heavily furred Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the United States except extreme southern protions of southern states.  Also occurs in southeastern Alaska. 658 172 Lower Risk (lc)         roosts under bark and in hollow trees Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Western Small-footed Bat Myotis ciliolabrum Lower Risk (lc) Much of the western United States   670 Lower Risk (lc)         occurs in rocky habitats  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Lower Risk (lc) Most of US, except Texas to Nebraska, and extreme southern portions of southern states 224, 225, 814 142 Lower Risk (lc)         frequents man-made structures Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Northern Myotis Myotis septentrionalis Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States, eastern Montana, eastern Wyoming, south to Alabama, Georgia, and Florida panhandle 226, 227 634 Lower Risk (lc)         hibernates in caves and mines  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Long-legged Myotis Myotis volans Lower Risk (lc) Alaska panhandle to California, east to western tip of Texas and western North Dakota   224 Lower Risk (lc)         inhabits open forested lands  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Snowshoe Hare Lepus americanus Lower risk Southern and central Alaska to southern and central coasts of Hudson Bay to Newfoundland and Anacosti Island, Canada, south to southern Appalachians, southern Michigan, North Dakota, north central New Mexico, south central Utah, and east central California. 246, 544           Mostly nocturnal or crepuscular; shelters by day under logs or in thick vegetation. Lives in forests and dense thickets, often associated with low wet areas. autumn molt turns pelage white Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Lagomorpha Leporidae White-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus townsendii Lower risk Central Alberta and Saskatchewan east to extreme southwestern Ontario, Canada, south to southwestern Wisconsin, Iowa, northwestern Missouri, west through central Kansas to north central New Mexico, west to central Nevada, east central California, US, and north to south central British Columbia, Canada. 1189, 1349 288       Open grasslands, meadows and cultivated areas; less common in sagebrush flats. Mainly nocturnal, but may be active at dawn or dusk.  When pursued, follows a zigzag path with big leaps and bursts of speed. do not do so well in cultivated areas  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Desert Rabbit Sylvilagus audubonii Lower Risk Northeastern Puebla and western Veracruz, Mexico, to north central Montana and southwestern North Dakota, north central Utah, central Nevada, and northcentral California, south to Baja California and central Sinaloa, Mexico. 059, 1188, 1858 106       Habitat is varied, maily in dry lowlands including deserts, grasslands, riparian brush and pinon-juniper woodlands. Most active soon after dawn or at dusk. Retreats from heat of day into burrows made by another species or a shady thicket. moisture from food supplies needed water  
Lagomorpha Leporidae Eastern Cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Lower Risk Northern, central, and western Venezuela and adjacent islands and adjacent Colombia through Central America (disjunct in part); to northwestern Mexico, Arizona, north and east to North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Michigan, New York and Massachusetts, Atlantic Coast south and Florida Gulf Coast west to Mexico; also southern Saskatchewan, southern Ontario and south central Quebec, Canada. 058, 953 136       Thickets and old fields, edges of hardwood forest, farmland, prairies and swamps. One of most familiar rabbits, mainly nocturnal but may be active and dawns or dusk. Sleeps under brush piles or in thickets or dense grass. restricted to riparian habitat Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Lagomorpha Leporidae Mountain Cottontail Sylvilagus nuttallii Lower Risk Intermountain area of North America from southern British Columbia to southern Saskatchewan, Canada, south to eastern California, Nevada, central Arizona and NW New Mexico.   56       Lives in rocky areas in sagebrush flats, riparian areas and gullies near ponderosa pines or spruces. Most active at dawn or dusk. Unlike most rabbits, sometimes climbs trees. inhabits sagebrush  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Arctic shrew Sorex arcticus Least concern Northcentral United States.  Northeastern North Dakota and northeastern South Dakota, most of Minnesota and Wisocnsin, and the upper penninsula of Michigan. 1391 524 Lower risk         few live longer than 15 months in the wild  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Masked shrew Sorex cinereus Least concern Throughout Alaska, south through most of Washington, Idaho, central Utah and Colorado into north central New Mexico, east through most of Wyoming and Nebraska, Iowa, northern Illinois, and most of Indiana and Ohio, and south throught the Appalachian Mountains to north east Georgia and on the East Coast south to Maryland and New Jersey. 1392 743           this species ranges into eastern Siberia Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Soricomorpha Soricidae Priarie shrew Sorex haydeni Least concern Northern plains states; Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, and Missouri.                  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Pygmy shrew Sorex hoyi Least concern Northern United States; Alaska, Montana, Idaho, Washington, North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, and a small pocket in Colorado.   33         Formerly of the genus Microsorex; among the smallest North American mammals. smallest mammal in the world Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Soricomorpha Soricidae Merriam's shrew Sorex merriami Least concern Western United States.   2         Strong preference for dry habitats. only 1 specimen taken in North Dakota  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Water shrew Sorex palustris Least concern Southern Alaska and the northern and mountainous areas of the United States. 1287 296           excellent swimmers and divers Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Soricomorpha Talpidae Star-nosed mole Condylura cristata Least concern Geogria and north west South Carolina to Nova Scotia and Labrador; Great Lakes region to south eastern Manitoba. 649, 650 129         Unlike other moles, swims well and makes tunnels leading into water; also active on or under snow. May travel on the surface. Elsewhere makes deep burrows and throws up molehills. Habitat is wet areas in meadows, woods, swamps or streams, usually in mucky    
Soricomorpha Talpidae Eastern mole Scalopus aquaticus Least concern Throughout south eastern United States north to Massachussetts to Minnesota. 647, 648 105         Throws up large molehills when excavating deep tunnels. Makes shallow burrows for feeding that may be used only once or may be used for several years. Preferes fields or woods with soft moist soils.    
Rodentia Erethizontidae Common Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum common   82, 870 29         active throughout year barbed quills; prefer wooded and forested areas Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp.  Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.