Mammals of Maine









Common Name

Species Name



Mammal Image Library #s

Mammalian Species #

IUCN Status





ME Notes

ME Citations

Rodentia Muridae Meadow Vole Microtus pennsylvanicus U.S. ESA - Endangered as M. p. dukecampbelli; IUCN - Vulnerable as M. p. dukecampbelli, Lower Risk (nt) as M. p. admiraltiae, M. p. kincaidi, M. p. provectus and M. p. shattucki, not evaluated as M. p. chihuahuensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Meadowlands interspersed across boreal and mixed coniferous-deciduous biomes of North America: C Alaska to Labrador, including Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, Canada; south in Rocky Mountains to N New Mexico, in Great Plains to N Kansas, and in Appalachians and along eastern seaboard to N Georgia and South Carolina; outlier populations in W New Mexico and peninsular Florida, and in N Chihuahua, Mexico 70 159         Active night or day; swims well but cannot climb. Highly prolific: breeds March-November or year-round; litter size is about 6; one female can have 17 litters per year (in captivity). Aggressive when caught, does not hesitate to bite. Habitat is damp meadows, roadsides, orchards and other areas with a thick cover of lush grass. The common "field mouse."  Usually brown, round face, short ears and short tail.  
Rodentia Muridae Woodland Vole Microtus pinetorum Lower Risk Temperate deciduous forest zone of E USA - eastern shoreline from S Maine to NC Florida, west to C Wisconsin and E Texas; isolated population on the Edwards Plateau, C Texas, may be extinct   147         Mainly subterranean; makes burrows under leaf litter or in shallow soil, only emerging to race to another burrow. Lives in small family groups and is usually monogamous. Habitat is deciduous forest with thick leaf litter, grassy patches in woodlands or orchards and dense brush. Favors areas with sandy soils. Lives in leaf litter  
Rodentia Muridae Common Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Data Deficient as O. z. ripensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) North America, north to the tree line, including Newfoundland; south to the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande and lower Colorado River valleys. Introduced to Czech Republic in 1905 and now widespread in the Palearctic, including C and N Europe, most of Ukraine, Russia and Siberia, adjacent parts of Mongolia and scattered through China, NE Korea, and Honshu Island, Japan; also into southernmost Argentina 1162, 1163 141         Mainly nocturnal, but also active on overcast or rainy days; more likely to be seen by day than other large semiaquatic rodents. Swims well and is more buoyant than a beaver. Habitat is shallow marshes with abundant cattails; less common along streams or in wooded swamps. Often confused with beaver.  Smaller than beaver.  Long tail "snakes" behind the animal as it swims.  
Rodentia Muridae Southern Red-backed Vole Clethrionomys gapperi Data Deficient as M. g. solus, Lower Risk (nt) as C. g. maurus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Most of Canada from N British Columbia to Labrador, excluding Newfoundland; south in the Appalachians to N Georgia and NW South Carolina, in the Great Plains to N Iowa, and in the Rockies to C New Mexico and EC Arizona; extralimital isolates in NW and E Pennsylvania and S New Jersey 69 146?         Active at any time, but tends to be more diurnal in winter and mainly nocturnal in summer. Travels under leaf litter and fallen logs but does not construct an underground burrow system. Lives in damp forests with fallen logs, also mountain meadows, clear-cuts and bogs. Chestnut colored back on gray body.  Climbs, runs, jumps and swims well.  
Rodentia Muridae Rock Vole Microtus chrotorrhinus Data Deficient as M. c. ravus, Lower Risk (nt) as M. c. carolinensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) S Labrador south through S Quebec and Ontario, Canada, to NE Minnesota, N New York and N New England states; isolated segments in the C and S Appalachian Mountains 250 180         Travels around and under mossy rocks. Eats bunchberry and other green plants and may cache food under rocks. Prefers rocky areas in cool moist hardwood or mixed forests; often found near streams. As name implies, lives in rocky areas.  
Rodentia Muridae White-footed Deermouse Peromyscus leucopus Data Deficient as P. l. ammodytes, otherwise Lower Risk S Alberta to S Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, Canada; throughout much of C and E USA, excluding Florida; southwards to N Durango and along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec and NW Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico 73, 251, 1174 247         Mainly terrestrial, but climbs well and may forage or nest well above the ground. Swims well, occupies many islands in lakes. Habitat is deciduous and mixed forests, hedgerows, brushy areas, croplands and dry semidesert regions in the Southwest. Fur is reddish rather than grayish, top and bottom of tail usually the same color.  
Rodentia Muridae North American Deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus Lower Risk (nt) as P. m. anacapae and P. m. clemintis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Panhandle of Alaska and across N Canada, south through most of continental USA, excluding the SE and E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico; including many land bridge islands 74, 1175           Woodland forms climb very well and are semi-arboreal. Feeds on seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi and other foods; stores excess in caches. Occupies almost every habitat type, from boreal forest and tundra to desert, prairies, swamps and high mountains. Difficult to distinguish from white-footed mouse. The bottom of the tail is white, the overall color grayish.  
Rodentia Muridae Northern Bog Lemming Synaptomys borealis Lower Risk Patchy occurrence in boreal habitats, from Alaska to N Washington, eastwards across much of interior Canada to Labrador; disjunct range segment from Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, to C New Hampshire             Habits are probably similar to Southern Bog Lemming. Breeds May-August; litter size is 2-8. Habitat is mainly bogs, wet meadows, gaps and openings in forest, or alpine tundra. Takes an expert to differentiate it from Southern Bog Lemming.  
Rodentia Muridae Southern Bog Lemming Synaptomys cooperi Extinct as S. c. paludis and S. c. relictus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Midwestern and E USA through SE Canada, including Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island; as far south as W North Carolina and NE Arkansas; outlying populations in SW Kansas, W Nebraska, and the Dismal Swamp region of SE Virginia-NE North Carolina 682 210         Mainly nocturnal, sometimes active by day. Eats mostly grass and sedges, also some fungi, berries and moss. Lives in colonies of 3-30. Habitat is variable, but usually in or near green grass and sedge; found around sphagnum bogs, in dense woodlands, spruce-fir forest and in dry bluegrass fields. Like many other small rodents, it builds runways.  These it litters with green droppings.  Eats sedges and grasses.  
Rodentia Geomyidae Baird's Pocket Gopher Geomys breviceps   Western Louisiana, eastern Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and  southwestern Arkansas.   383              
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus   Eastern United States; Louisiana north to southern Manitoba and Nova Scotia east to the Atlantic Coast. 110, 259 168 Least concern         Can climb trees, may be seen for short periods in winter.  
Rodentia Sciuridae North American red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus   Alaska and throughout Canada; northeastern United States, south to northwestern South Carolina. 111, 260, 826, 827 586 Least concern         Prefer to feed on seeds in cones.  Readily "scold" people.  
Rodentia Muridae House Mouse Mus musculus Lower risk Every state in the United States. 92, 754             Usually around buildings.  Though generally detrimental, an albino strain is used in laboratories.  
Rodentia Muridae Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus Lower risk Scattered across the United States but very scarce, in not absent, from the Rocky Mountains (might looks this way because of sampling effort). 755, 756, 757, 758             Burrows, frequents cities, eats anything edible.  Albino strain used in biological and medical laboratories.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus   Alaska and Canada, northwestern United States to southern California and western South Dakota, northeastern United States to southern Appalachian Mountains. 1020 229 Least concern         Common but seldom seen because it is nocturnal.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans   Eastern half f the United States from southern Canada to Florida. 1021, 1022 78 Least concern       subspecies G. v. saturates occurs throughout; G. v. texensis possibly occurs in extreme SW corner; G. v. volans possibly occurs in extreme northern counties Has membranes from wrists to ankles for gliding.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Woodchuck Marmota monax   From eastern Oklahoma, northern Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia north to Canada over to Alaska and possibly south into northern Idaho. 107 591 Least concern         Can climb trees, agricultural pests. No closed season.  
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis   Eastern Texas north to Saskatchewan Canada and east to the Atlantic Coast. 94, 95 480 Least concern       subspecies is S. c. carolinensis Can be black or white (albino) or vary brown spots yearly.  
Carnivora Canidae Eastern Coyote Canis latrans Common Throughout continental US. 265 (C), 1126, 1127 (B), 1267 79         Larger than western coyote. Larger than western coyote.  Has expanded range into Maine since 1976.  
Carnivora Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Common Throughout the US except in the southwest. 435 (W), 436 (Y), 582 537         This species helps keep small mammal populations in check; white tail tip. White tip on tail, has several color phases.  Eats rodents  
Carnivora Canidae Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Common Nationwide except for the northwest. 584 189         Black dorsal stripe on tail; climbs trees. Black stripe on upper tail, climbs trees!  
Carnivora Ursidae Black Bear Ursus americanus Common Northeast, Great Lakes region, Appalachians, Arkansas and west; Alaska and northern Canada but absent in Nevada and Great Plains.  Southern distributions spotty into Mexico. 142 (C),1132 (S) 647         Usually not aggressive. Adults climb trees.   Black color most common, cinnamon and white phases also exist. Usually not aggressive, adults climb trees  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Marten Martes americana Common within range Extreme northern New England, mountain ranges of western US, Canada, and Alaska.   289         Found in isolated pockets of habitat. Prefers coniferous forests; dens in rock and tree hollows  
Carnivora Mustelidae Fisher Martes pennanti Common Southern Canada to northeastern and midwestern US. 590 (C) 156         Larger and less arboreal than martens.  Successfully preys on porcupines. Successfully preys on porcupines.  
Carnivora Mustelidae Ermine or Short-tailed Weasel Mustela erminea Common All of Canada, northeastern US, Great Lakes region, northwestern US. 588 (P), 1051 (P) 195         Color varies seasonally, mainly eats rodents and young rabbits, as well as small vertebrates and invertebrates.  Nocturnal. Varies color seasonally
Varies color seasonally
Carnivora Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Common Southwestern Canada, everywhere south of Canada/US border to South America except arid desert areas of southwest US and northwest Mexico. 1348 570         Prefers rodents, but feeds on a broad array of small vertebrates.  Agile swimmer.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, but not southern populations. Like all weasels, beneficial.  Kills rodents  
Carnivora Mustelidae American Mink Neovison vison Common Alaska and contiguous 48 states, except for arid west and southwest. 1129 608         Though taken for their fur, ranched mink have relieved the pressure on wild ones.  Mink eat crayfish, fish, frogs, and small rodents along with any other animals they can capture and kill. Lives near water, eats other vertebrates.  
Carnivora Mustelidae Northern River Otter Lontra canadensis Common in the northern part of its range, uncommon to extirpated in southern parts of its range. Alaska and most of the continental US except for much of the southwestern continental US. 802 (A), 859 (W) 587         Playful, likes to slide on the snow.  Eats fish and other aquatic or amphibious animals. Playful, eats fish  
Carnivora Mephitidae Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Common Throughout continental US except a small area in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 280 173         Sometimes de-scented and kept as pets (not recommended).  Good "mouser" and will use cat litter boxes. Nocturnal, omnivorous, beneficial  
Carnivora Phocidae Harbor Seal Phoca vitulina Common All of west coast from southern Alaska south to Mexico; also New England south to Delaware along the east coast. 135           Unlike many other seal species, harbor seals have an annual reproductive cycle.  Prey on a large range of swimming and bottom dwelling ocean species, mainly fish.  Dives can be deep and last up to a half an hour. Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.  
Carnivora Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor Common Common throughout US except portions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. 140, 709 (S) 119         Raccoons are extremely adaptable and can live in a wide range of temperatures.  They are found virtually anywhere there is water.  Their diet is extremely varied including plant and animal material.  The forefeet of raccoons end in highly sensitive hand-l Nocturnal, omnivorous, sometimes, not always "wash" their food  
Carnivora Felidae Canada Lynx Lynx canadensis Common in range Alaska, Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes, and extreme northern New England. 587           Has been said to live in areas where they have not been seen, due to existing only in remote areas where feline distemper cannot be transmitted by more resistant cats.  Eats snowshoe hares in the winter.  Has large feet for running in the snow. Larger than bobcat, longer ear tufts,  black tip of tail and larger feet  
Carnivora Felidae Bobcat Lynx rufus Rare or common, depending on geographic region. All of contiguous US, except for parts of California, Utah, Colorado,  agricultural areas of the midwest and coastal areas of the midAtlantic states. 819, 1293 563         As with the Canada lynx, bobcats are very secretive and seldom observed even in areas it occupies.  Slightly smaller than the lynx, it is capable of taking adult white-tailed deer.  Though mainly a carnivore,  areas a large array of plant and animal mater Found at higher elevations away from people.  Sometimes overwinter in barns  
Artiodactyla Cervidae White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Common Throughout North America, except northern Canada and very arid areas of western US. 1313 388           Abandoned farms provide much habitat.  
Artiodactyla Cervidae Moose Alces americanus Common within its range Most of sub-arctic Canada, Alaska, Montana, Idaho,  western Wyoming, Minnesota, New York, New England. 192, 618 154           Largest of deer family, often eat aquatic plants.  
Lagomorpha Leporidae New England Cottontail Sylvilagus transitionalis Vulnerable Boreal habitats from southern Maine to southern New York, mostly east of the Hudson River. 1408 55       Open woodland, thickets and brushy areas bordering clearings. Becomes active at dusk but seldom ventures far from cover. Males compete for females with chases, vertical jumps and face-offs. Prefers scrub or shrub habitat.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda Least concern North-central and northeastern United States and adjacent provinces of southern Canada.   261           Not habitat specific, very venomous saliva.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous US and Alaska 39, 223 356 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Eptesicini Large, eats mainly beetles.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis Lower Risk (lc) Central and eastern United States 40, 655, 815 183 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini Brick-red to buffy orange.  Catch insects on electric lights.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous United States and Hawaii 656, 041, 042 185 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini; *Status is Low Risk eith the exception of L. c. semotus Large, eats a variety of insects, migratory.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the United States except extreme southern protions of southern states.  Also occurs in southeastern Alaska. 658 172 Lower Risk (lc)         Brown, silvery throat, neck and head.  Likes conifers, water.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Small-footed Myotis Myotis leibii Lower Risk (lc) Southern Maine, south to Georgia and west to eastern Oklahoma   547 Lower Risk (lc)         Small feet, golden brown, black ears and face mask.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Lower Risk (lc) Most of US, except Texas to Nebraska, and extreme southern portions of southern states 224, 225, 814 142 Lower Risk (lc)         Lives in hollow trees, buildings , caves and mines.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Northern Myotis Myotis septentrionalis Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States, eastern Montana, eastern Wyoming, south to Alabama, Georgia, and Florida panhandle 226, 227 634 Lower Risk (lc)         Resembles Little Brown in appearance and habits, silky fur. Until recently classified with Keen's bat.  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Indiana Myotis Myotis sodalis Endangered New Hampshire to Florida panhandle, west to Wisconsin and Oklahoma 391 163 Endangered            
Lagomorpha Leporidae Snowshoe Hare Lepus americanus Lower risk Southern and central Alaska to southern and central coasts of Hudson Bay to Newfoundland and Anacosti Island, Canada, south to southern Appalachians, southern Michigan, North Dakota, north central New Mexico, south central Utah, and east central California. 246, 544           Mostly nocturnal or crepuscular; shelters by day under logs or in thick vegetation. Lives in forests and dense thickets, often associated with low wet areas. Varies color for seasons, large hind feet keep it on snow.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Masked shrew Sorex cinereus Least concern Throughout Alaska, south through most of Washington, Idaho, central Utah and Colorado into north central New Mexico, east through most of Wyoming and Nebraska, Iowa, northern Illinois, and most of Indiana and Ohio, and south throught the Appalachian Mountains to north east Georgia and on the East Coast south to Maryland and New Jersey. 1392 743           Likes moist areas in fields, brushlands and forests.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Long-tailed shrew Sorex dispar Least concern Limited to the mountainous areas of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee.   155           Generally found in rocky areas.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Smoky shrew Sorex fumeus Least concern Northeastern United States; Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.   215           Prefers damp, shaded forests.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Pygmy shrew Sorex hoyi Least concern Northern United States; Alaska, Montana, Idaho, Washington, North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, and a small pocket in Colorado.   33         Formerly of the genus Microsorex; among the smallest North American mammals. Considered by some in genus Sorex.  Burrows in loose soil.  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Water shrew Sorex palustris Least concern Southern Alaska and the northern and mountainous areas of the United States. 1287 296           Lives in aquatic habitats, particularly in mountainous areas.  Eats aquatic insects.  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Star-nosed mole Condylura cristata Least concern Geogria and north west South Carolina to Nova Scotia and Labrador; Great Lakes region to south eastern Manitoba. 649, 650 129         Unlike other moles, swims well and makes tunnels leading into water; also active on or under snow. May travel on the surface. Elsewhere makes deep burrows and throws up molehills. Habitat is wet areas in meadows, woods, swamps or streams, usually in mucky Likes wet soils, even eats aquatic insects.  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Hairy-tailed mole Parascalops breweri Least concern North eastern United States and south eastern Canada. 646, 852 98         At night may forage on the surface. Eats earthworms and insects, especially beetles. Habitat is deciduous and coniferous woods, old fields and roadsides with moist but light, well-drained soil.    
Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana least concern found everywhere except NV, MT, UT, ND, SD, WI, MN, WY 3, 4, 630, 828, 829, 830 40         Nocturnal, introduced to the western states in the early 1900s    
Rodentia Erethizontidae Common Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum common   82, 870 29         active throughout year Do not shoot their quills, but drive them into tormentors with a flick of their tail.  Cause economic damage by gnawing  
Cetacea Balaenidae North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis Endangered North Atlantic; temperate to tropical waters       no carnivore aquatic, marine Surfaces to blow about every 5-20 minutes; usually raises flukes as it descends. Eats small crustaceans including krill. Prefers waters close to shore.    
Cetacea Balaenopteridae Common Minke Whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lower Risk Worldwide: arctic to tropical waters       no carnivore aquatic, marine Before a dive, raises tail stock above the water but usually does not expose flukes. Mainly seen alone or in pairs but may congregate in groups of 100 or more at feeding areas. Lives in coastal and offshore waters.    
Cetacea alaenopteridae Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae U.S. ESA - Endangered; IUCN - Vulnerable Worldwide: cold-temperate to tropical waters 575, 576, 698, 768 604   no carnivore aquatic, marine Acrobatic; leap clear of water when breaching; frequently slaps water with flippers or tail. Feeds on schooling fish or krill; groups may cooperate to trap prey. In winter and summer, found in coastal areas or near islands; migrates through open oceans.    
Cetacea Phocoenidae Harbor Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Vulnerable N Pacific and N Atlantic: arctic to cold-temperate waters, isolated population in Black Sea; extends south to Senegal in the E Atlantic 1130, 1357 42   no carnivore aquatic, marine Shy and often difficult to approach. Seldom breaches, but many arc and splash when pursuing prey. Lives in cold coastal waters.