Mammals of Kansas

Order

Family

Common Name

Species Name

Status

Distribution

Mammal Image Library #s

Mammalian Species #

IUCN Status

Introduced

Diet

Biome

Notes

KS Notes

KS Citations

Rodentia Muridae Prairie Vole Microtus ochrogaster Lower Risk Northern and Central Great Plains - EC Alberta to S Manitoba, Canada; south to N Texas Panhandle, SW Oklahoma and Arkansas; eastwards to C Tennessee, westernmost West Virginia, and W Ohio; relictual populations in C Colorado, N New Mexico and coastal prairies of SW Louisiana and adjacent Texas 1160 355         Most active at dawn or dusk. Unlike most voles, forms monogamous pairs that share a nest; both parents care for young and defend their home range. Older offspring may remain with parents and help tend a new litter. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and agricultural areas, usually on dry sandy soils at lower elevations. inhabits tall-grass communities and upland habitats Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Meadow Vole Microtus pennsylvanicus U.S. ESA - Endangered as M. p. dukecampbelli; IUCN - Vulnerable as M. p. dukecampbelli, Lower Risk (nt) as M. p. admiraltiae, M. p. kincaidi, M. p. provectus and M. p. shattucki, not evaluated as M. p. chihuahuensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Meadowlands interspersed across boreal and mixed coniferous-deciduous biomes of North America: C Alaska to Labrador, including Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, Canada; south in Rocky Mountains to N New Mexico, in Great Plains to N Kansas, and in Appalachians and along eastern seaboard to N Georgia and South Carolina; outlier populations in W New Mexico and peninsular Florida, and in N Chihuahua, Mexico 70 159         Active night or day; swims well but cannot climb. Highly prolific: breeds March-November or year-round; litter size is about 6; one female can have 17 litters per year (in captivity). Aggressive when caught, does not hesitate to bite. Habitat is damp meadows, roadsides, orchards and other areas with a thick cover of lush grass. inhabits moist meadows, marshes, and riparian habitat Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Woodland Vole Microtus pinetorum Lower Risk Temperate deciduous forest zone of E USA - eastern shoreline from S Maine to NC Florida, west to C Wisconsin and E Texas; isolated population on the Edwards Plateau, C Texas, may be extinct   147         Mainly subterranean; makes burrows under leaf litter or in shallow soil, only emerging to race to another burrow. Lives in small family groups and is usually monogamous. Habitat is deciduous forest with thick leaf litter, grassy patches in woodlands or orchards and dense brush. Favors areas with sandy soils. semifossorial Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Eastern Woodrat Neotoma floridana U.S ESA - Endangered as N. f. smalli; IUCN - Endangered as N. f. smalli, Lower Risk (nt) as N. f. baileyi and N. f. haematoreia, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SC and SE USA from EC Colorado to C Texas, eastwards to the Atlantic seaboard, from S North Carolina to peninsular Florida; isolated population on Florida Keys (smalli) 1016 139         Active year-round, but may stay in its house in bad weather. Climbs well and is semi-arboreal. Habitat is variable; includes bluffs and rocky areas, swamps and hammocks, forested uplands and dry scrub pine. build large stick houses in rugged terrain Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Southern Plains Woodrat Neotoma micropus Lower Risk SE Colorado and SW Kansas through W Texas and most of New Mexico; south in Mexico to N Chihuahua, E San Luis Potosi, and S Tamaulipas   330         Eats cactus leaves and fruit, mesquite beans, acorns and other plant material and can obtain sufficient water from its food. Makes a house under a prickly pear cactus or shrub and probably uses the same house for life. Lives in dry grasslands with cactus, mesquite and other shrubs; mainly found in flat plains, occasionally on rocky hillsides. fill depressions with material to create nest site Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Common Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Data Deficient as O. z. ripensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) North America, north to the tree line, including Newfoundland; south to the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande and lower Colorado River valleys. Introduced to Czech Republic in 1905 and now widespread in the Palearctic, including C and N Europe, most of Ukraine, Russia and Siberia, adjacent parts of Mongolia and scattered through China, NE Korea, and Honshu Island, Japan; also into southernmost Argentina 1162, 1163 141         Mainly nocturnal, but also active on overcast or rainy days; more likely to be seen by day than other large semiaquatic rodents. Swims well and is more buoyant than a beaver. Habitat is shallow marshes with abundant cattails; less common along streams or in wooded swamps. requires body of water Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Northern Grasshopper Mouse Onychomys leucogaster Data Deficient as O. l. durranti, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) S Alberta, S Saskatchewan, and SW Manitoba, Canada, south through much of Great Plains and Great Basin region of USA, to NC Sonora and N Tamaulipas, Mexico 253, 1017, 1169 87         Nocturnal; most active on dark moonless nights. Much more carnivorous than most mice, taking large scorpions and beetles and some small vertebrates; also eats seeds and plant material. Mostly very solitary. Habitat is deserts, grasslands, prairies and shrub steppe; favors areas with rather sparse vegetation and sandy soils. behavior similar to canids Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Texas Deermouse Peromyscus attwateri Lower Risk Edwards Plateau of C and N Texas, eastwards through SW and E Oklahoma to SE Kansas, SW Missouri and NW Arkansas   48         Semi-arboreal; climbs high in junipers and other trees, also frequents rocky crevices and fallen logs. Eats seeds, other plant matter and insects. Habitat is cliffs and rocky areas dominated by juniper, also oak woodland and cedar glades. prefers brushy hillsides and ravines Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Brush Deermouse Peromyscus boylii Lower Risk Much of SW USA, from N California to westernmost Oklahoma, south to N Baja California Norta and Trans-Pecos Texas, along the Sierra Madre Occidental and W Central Plateau to Queretaro and W Hidalgo, Mexico 1171 838         Climbs well, but usually nests in rock crevices or under fallen trees. Probably does not dig its own burrows and requires rocks or other ground cover for shelter. Lives in woods and dense brush with rocks, fallen trees, or brush piles; usually found above 3,000 ft to about 8,500 ft.    
Rodentia Muridae White-footed Deermouse Peromyscus leucopus Data Deficient as P. l. ammodytes, otherwise Lower Risk S Alberta to S Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, Canada; throughout much of C and E USA, excluding Florida; southwards to N Durango and along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec and NW Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico 73, 251, 1174 247         Mainly terrestrial, but climbs well and may forage or nest well above the ground. Swims well, occupies many islands in lakes. Habitat is deciduous and mixed forests, hedgerows, brushy areas, croplands and dry semidesert regions in the Southwest. prefer habitats with three dimensional structure Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae North American Deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus Lower Risk (nt) as P. m. anacapae and P. m. clemintis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Panhandle of Alaska and across N Canada, south through most of continental USA, excluding the SE and E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico; including many land bridge islands 74, 1175           Woodland forms climb very well and are semi-arboreal. Feeds on seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi and other foods; stores excess in caches. Occupies almost every habitat type, from boreal forest and tundra to desert, prairies, swamps and high mountains. probably the most abundant vertebrate on the plains Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Piñon Deermouse Peromyscus truei Lower Risk (nt) as P. t.. comanche, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) USA, SW and C Oregon to W and SE Colorado, south to N Baja California Norte, Mexico, Arizona and New Mexico; isolated populations in N Texas (comanche) and S Baja California Sur (lagunae) 1176 161         Hops away when disturbed, may climb a tree or disappear among rocks if pursued. Eats mostly piñon and juniper seeds, also takes insects and fungi. Prefers piñon and piñon-juniper stands, usually among rocks.    
Rodentia Muridae Western Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis Lower Risk SC British Columbia and SE Alberta, Canada; through much of W and NC USA; south to N Baja California Norte and through interior Mexico to C Oaxaca 1018 167         Feeds on small seeds, moth larvae, beetles and other insects. Nests are usually well concealed on the ground or low in vegetation. Prefers wet meadows and overgrown fields; also found in dry areas and clearing in forests. strictly nocturnal Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Plains Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys montanus Lower Risk High Plains of C USA, from W South Dakota and E Wyoming to EC Texas and extreme SE Arizona; NE Sonora and Chihuahua to N Durango, Mexico   257         Feeds on flowers and seeds of weeds and grasses, also eats grasshoppers and other insects. Makes a ball-shaped nest on or just above the ground. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and cultivated fields. does well in grazed rangeland Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Hispid Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Lower Risk (nt) as S. h. eremicus and S. h. insulicola, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SE USA, from S Nebraska to C Virginia and south to SE Arizona and peninsular Florida; NW Chihuahua to N Tamaulipas, south through interior Mexico at least to C Zacatecas and W San Luis Potosi 76, 1177           Mainly crepuscular, but can be active at any time. Broad distribution, abundance and daytime activity make this one of the more conspicuous small rodents. Habitat is tall-grass prairies, meadows, agricultural areas and oldfields; favors areas with dense vegetation but also occurs in mesquite desert with little ground cover. neotropical species extending its range northward Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Southern Bog Lemming Synaptomys cooperi Extinct as S. c. paludis and S. c. relictus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Midwestern and E USA through SE Canada, including Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island; as far south as W North Carolina and NE Arkansas; outlying populations in SW Kansas, W Nebraska, and the Dismal Swamp region of SE Virginia-NE North Carolina 682 210         Mainly nocturnal, sometimes active by day. Eats mostly grass and sedges, also some fungi, berries and moss. Lives in colonies of 3-30. Habitat is variable, but usually in or near green grass and sedge; found around sphagnum bogs, in dense woodlands, spruce-fir forest and in dry bluegrass fields. burrow just above the water table near body of water; good swimmer Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Geomyidae Plains Pocket Gopher Geomys bursarius Lower risk Southcentral Manitoba, Canada to northwest Indiana, southcentral Texas and northeastern New Mexico. 690   X         highly fossorial; upper incisors grooved Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern fox squirrel Sciurus niger   Texas north to Manitoba, east to the Atlantic Coast. 96, 880, 1644, 1645 479   introduced population       prefers open woodland Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus   Eastern United States; Louisiana north to southern Manitoba and Nova Scotia east to the Atlantic Coast. 110, 259 168 Least concern         does not occur in open country Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Heteromyidae Ord's Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys ordii   Southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta (Canada) and southeastern Washington south through Great Plains and intermontane basins of western USA, to Mexican Plateau as far south as Hidalgo (Mexico). 560, 693, 1099, 1352 353 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in dry grasslands, desert scrub, piñon-juniper and sagebrush, almost always on fine sandy soils or sand dunes. Revised by Setzer (1949) and reviewed by Garrison and Best (1990, Mammalian Species No. 353); subspecies follow Williams et al. (1993).  Does not include compactus, see Schmidly and Hendricks (1976), Baumgardner and Schmidly (1981), and comment under that species.  Williams et al. (1993) provide a list of what they consider as valid subspecies.  Most active on dark cloudy nights, seldom above ground by day or in bad weather. Makes deep burrows, with entrances often under shrubs or on banks. can live indefinitely without water Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Heteromyidae Hispid Pocket Mouse Chaetodipus hispidus   Great Plains from southern North Dakota to southeastern Arizona and western Louisiana (USA), south to Tamaulipas and Hidalgo (Mexico).   320 Lower Risk (lc)     Lives in grassy areas in plains and deserts, usually on sandy soils. Revised by Glass (1947); subspecies listed by Hall (1981) and Williams et al. (1993).  Reviewed by Paulson (1988b, Mammalian Species No. 320).  Type species of monotypic subgenus Burtognathus Hoffmeister.  Does not hop as much as other pocket mice. Active year-round, relying on stored seeds in winter in northern part of range. seldom venture above ground in winter (each seed cache) Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Heteromyidae Plains Pocket Mouse Perognathus flavescens   Great Plains and intermountain basins from Minnesota and northern Utah (USA) to N Chihuahua (Mexico). 694, 1337 525 Lower Risk (lc)   Eats seeds of grass, sedge, forbs and corn; also eats insects and tree seeds. Habitat is sand dunes and sandy washes in grasslands and sagebrush; also edges of agricultural areas and open stands of conifers. Reviewed by Williams (1978b).  Hoffmeister (1986) considered apache a distinct species.  Subspecies reviewed by Williams et al. (1993).  Will climb vegetation when foraging. prefers sandy soils with vegetative cover Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Heteromyidae Silky Pocket Mouse Perognathus flavus   Southwestern Great Plains and intermountain plateaus from South Dakota, eastern Wyoming, and southeastern Utah (USA) south to Sonora and Puebla (Mexico). 562, 1182, 1338 471 Lower Risk (nt) as P. f. goodpasteri; otherwise Lower Risk (lc).   Mostly sifts through sand for small seeds, but may climb stalks to harvest green seeds. Lives in dry grasslands and deserts, almost always with some grassy cover and sparse shrubs. Revised by Baker (1954); subspecies listed by Hall (1981) and reviewed by Williams et al. (1993).  Wilson (1973) considered merriami conspecific, but Anderson (1972) Lee and Engstrom (1991) documented species distinctness of merriami from flavus (see below).  Reviewed by Best and Skupski (1994a, Mammalian Species No. 471). least dependant on sand for dusting pelage (compared to other pocket mice) Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae House Mouse Mus musculus Lower risk Every state in the United States. 92, 754             from Europe; frequently associated with man-made structures Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus Lower risk Scattered across the United States but very scarce, in not absent, from the Rocky Mountains (might looks this way because of sampling effort). 755, 756, 757, 758             from Europe; possibly the most destructive of all mammals Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Muridae Roof Rat Rattus rattus Lower risk Distributed around the outside of the country.  Not many records of this species being collected in the interior of the country (this might be because of sampling effort). 759, 760             from Europe; displaced by the Norway rat Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Black-tailed prairie dog Cynomys ludovicianus Decreasing Montana south to eastern Nebraska, western Texas, New Mexico, and southeast Arizona. 105 535 Least concern       was extirpated in AZ, reintroduced to Las Cienegas National Preserve keep vegetation surrounding burrows shortly cropped Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans   Eastern half f the United States from southern Canada to Florida. 1021, 1022 78 Least concern       subspecies G. v. saturates occurs throughout; G. v. texensis possibly occurs in extreme SW corner; G. v. volans possibly occurs in extreme northern counties highly arboreal; nocturnal; great gliders Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus   Great Plains, from central Texas to eastern Utah, Ohio, and south central Canada. 103, 573 103 Least concern         abundant along rights-of-way and roadsides Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Woodchuck Marmota monax   From eastern Oklahoma, northern Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia north to Canada over to Alaska and possibly south into northern Idaho. 107 591 Least concern         hibernate 4 to 6 months per year Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Franklin's ground squirrel Poliocitellus franklinii   Northern Great Plains; south central Canada south to Kansas, Illinois, and Indiana. 104 724 Least concern         occurs in tall-grass prairie Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis   Eastern Texas north to Saskatchewan Canada and east to the Atlantic Coast. 94, 95 480 Least concern       subspecies is S. c. carolinensis prefers dense woodland Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Sciuridae Spotted ground squirrel Xerospermophilus spilosoma   South central United States; western Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, south central South Dakota, southwestern Wyoming, western Colorado, much of New Mexico, eastern Arizona, and extreme southeastern Utah.   101 Least concern         prefer sandy soils Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Canidae Eastern Coyote Canis latrans Common Throughout continental US. 265 (C), 1126, 1127 (B), 1267 79         Larger than western coyote. Slide symbol: B -- specialized behavior; C -- Close-up of head region. Benefiting from agricultural development Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Common Throughout the US except in the southwest. 435 (W), 436 (Y), 582 537         This species helps keep small mammal populations in check; white tail tip. Slide symbol: W -- female with young; Y -- young, may be newborn. May have been introduced Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Canidae Swift Fox Vulpes velox Common Eastern WY, eastern CO, eastern NM, western SD, western NE, western KS, OK, and TX. 583 122       desert Similar to kit fox, with longer tail and larger ears.  Prefers more arid habitats. most abundant on short-grass prairie Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Canidae Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Common Nationwide except for the northwest. 584 189         Black dorsal stripe on tail; climbs trees. frequently climbs trees Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Common Southwestern Canada, everywhere south of Canada/US border to South America except arid desert areas of southwest US and northwest Mexico. 1348 570         Prefers rodents, but feeds on a broad array of small vertebrates.  Agile swimmer.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, but not southern populations. males feed on mammals as large as snow shoe hares; females feed on mouse-sized rodents Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae Black-footed Ferret Mustela nigripes Endangered Great Plains, southern Canada to northern Mexico. 128 126         Live in prairie dog colonies.  Active at any time, but most often crepuscular and nocturnal.  Have been subjects of survival training to enhance chances of successful reintroduction. federally endangered Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae Least Weasel Mustela nivalis Common Alaska, Midwest, Great Lakes, and (No Suggestions) states. 440, 1214, 1350 454         Avoids woodlands.  Active at all times of day and all times of the year.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, southern populations do not.  Females have more than one litter per year. smallest weasel in Kansas Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae American Mink Neovison vison Common Alaska and contiguous 48 states, except for arid west and southwest. 1129 608         Though taken for their fur, ranched mink have relieved the pressure on wild ones.  Mink eat crayfish, fish, frogs, and small rodents along with any other animals they can capture and kill. inhabits areas near water Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mustelidae American Badger Taxidea taxus Common within range Western and central North America, from central Canada to central Mexico. 701 (C), 702 (A), 703 (H) 26         Because of their secretive and fossorial (digging) habits badgers are not often seen.  Persecuted by humans, though sometimes inadvertently when taking poisoned meat meant for wolves and coyotes. Slide symbol: C -- Close-up of head region. A -- anatomical specialization. H -- habitat or sign of animals activity. Feed on any small mammal easily obtained Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mephitidae Eastern Spotted Skunk Spilogale putorius Unknown Central and southeastern continental US.   511         Other than what is known about skunks in general, not much is known about this species specifically. prefers forest edge habitat Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Mephitidae Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Common Throughout continental US except a small area in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 280 173         Sometimes de-scented and kept as pets (not recommended).  Good "mouser" and will use cat litter boxes. commensal with man Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Procyonidae Ringtail, Bassarisk, or Cacomistle Bassariscus astutus Common Southwestern US from the Gulf of Mexico to the west coast. 858 327         Nocturnal and seldom seen.  Good climber of rocks and trees.  Solitary and territorial, but can be densely populated in good habitat. tail is striped only on the dorsal surface Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor Common Common throughout US except portions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. 140, 709 (S) 119         Raccoons are extremely adaptable and can live in a wide range of temperatures.  They are found virtually anywhere there is water.  Their diet is extremely varied including plant and animal material.  The forefeet of raccoons end in highly sensitive hand-l Slide symbol: S -- skull. Does not wash food Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Carnivora Felidae Bobcat Lynx rufus Rare or common, depending on geographic region. All of contiguous US, except for parts of California, Utah, Colorado,  agricultural areas of the midwest and coastal areas of the midAtlantic states. 819, 1293 563         As with the Canada lynx, bobcats are very secretive and seldom observed even in areas it occupies.  Slightly smaller than the lynx, it is capable of taking adult white-tailed deer.  Though mainly a carnivore,  areas a large array of plant and animal mater most abundant in areas with broken terrain which provides cover Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Artiodactyla Cervidae White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Common Throughout North America, except northern Canada and very arid areas of western US. 1313 388           most common at forest edge Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Artiodactyla Antilocapridae Pronghorn Antelope Antilocapra americana Common West-central US with some extensions across the border with Canada and some ranging into central Mexico. 166, 717,718, 823, 1310 90       Open areas   fastest land animal in North America Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Soricomorpha Soricidae Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda Least concern North-central and northeastern United States and adjacent provinces of southern Canada.   261              
Soricomorpha Soricidae Elliot's short-tailed shrew Blarina hylophaga Least concern Southern Nebraska and southwestern Iowa south to southern Texas; east to Missouri and northwestern Arkansas; eastern Oklahoma and most of Kansas; extending into northern Louisiana.   878           venomous; active day and night  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Least shrew Cryptotis parva Least concern Concentrated in the southwestern United States.  From Florida up to New York and reaches as far west as Texas and South Dakota. 957 43           active day and night  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous US and Alaska 39, 223 356 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Eptesicini active later than most hibernating species Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis Lower Risk (lc) Central and eastern United States 40, 655, 815 183 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini broadest distribution of any new world bat; roosts in trees; interfemoral membrane heavily furred Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous United States and Hawaii 656, 041, 042 185 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini; *Status is Low Risk eith the exception of L. c. semotus roosts in trees; interfemoral membrane heavily furred Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Evening Bat Nycticeius humeralis Lower Risk (lc) Southern tip of Texas to Nebraska, the Great Lakes area, and Pennsylvania south to Florida and the Gulf Coast 232 23 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Nycticeiini frequently uses man-made structures Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Pipistrelle Perimyotis subflavus Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States excluding Maine and southern Florida 38, 654 228 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Pipistrellini males significantly outnumber females in hibernaculum Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Pallid Bat Antrozous pallidus Lower Risk (lc) Semi-arid Western United States, east to western edge of Kansas 230 213 Lower Risk (lc)         readily alights on ground to feed Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the United States except extreme southern protions of southern states.  Also occurs in southeastern Alaska. 658 172 Lower Risk (lc)         roosts under bark and in hollow trees Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Western Small-footed Bat Myotis ciliolabrum Lower Risk (lc) Much of the western United States   670 Lower Risk (lc)         occurs in rocky habitats Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Lower Risk (lc) Most of US, except Texas to Nebraska, and extreme southern portions of southern states 224, 225, 814 142 Lower Risk (lc)         frequents man-made structures Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Northern Myotis Myotis septentrionalis Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States, eastern Montana, eastern Wyoming, south to Alabama, Georgia, and Florida panhandle 226, 227 634 Lower Risk (lc)         hibernates in caves and mines Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Indiana Myotis Myotis sodalis Endangered New Hampshire to Florida panhandle, west to Wisconsin and Oklahoma 391 163 Endangered         federally endangered Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Cave Myotis Myotis velifer Lower Risk (lc) Central and southwestern Texas, southeastern New Mexico and Arizona, Texas panhandle and central Oklahoma and Kansas   149 Lower Risk (lc)         roosts in caves, mines, and buildings Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Molossidae Big Free-tailed Bat Nyctinomops macrotis Lower risk (lc) Southern and western Texas to southern California; southern Nevada, Utah and Colorado; reported from Iowa and Kansas 891 351 Lower Risk (lc)         roosts in rock crevices on cliffs Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Chiroptera Molossidae Brazilian/Mexican Free-tailed Bat Tadarida brasiliensis Lower Risk (nt) From Oregon to North Carolina and south 1549 331 Lower Risk (nt)         tail not enclosed by membrane Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Lagomorpha Leporidae Black-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus californicus Lower risk Hidalgo and southern Queretaro to northern Sonora and Baja California, Mexico; north to southwestern Oregon and central Washington, southern Idaho, eastern Colorado, southern South Dakota, western Missouri, and northwestern Arkansas. Apparently isolated population in southwestern Montana. 060, 245, 1347 530       Sagebrush flats, overgrazed pastures and rangelands, deserts, prairies and agricultural lands. Nocturnal or crepuscular; rests by day in a shallow soil depression, usually in the shade of a bush. Uses speed and agility to avoid predators; usually solitary, but may be seen in pairs or larger groups. presence is encouraged by heavy grazing Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Lagomorpha Leporidae White-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus townsendii Lower risk Central Alberta and Saskatchewan east to extreme southwestern Ontario, Canada, south to southwestern Wisconsin, Iowa, northwestern Missouri, west through central Kansas to north central New Mexico, west to central Nevada, east central California, US, and north to south central British Columbia, Canada. 1189, 1349 288       Open grasslands, meadows and cultivated areas; less common in sagebrush flats. Mainly nocturnal, but may be active at dawn or dusk.  When pursued, follows a zigzag path with big leaps and bursts of speed. does not do as well in cultivated areas as L. californicus Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Lagomorpha Leporidae Swamp Rabbit Sylvilagus aquaticus Lower Risk Southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana, southwestern Missouri to southeastern Kansas southward through extreme western Kentucky and western Tennessee to eastern Oklahoma, eastern Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and NW South Carolina.   151       Swamps, marshes and bottomlands. Active at dawn and in the late afternoon in spring and summer, mostly nocturnal in winter. Swims well, unlike most rabbits; very territorial. swamp habitat Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Lagomorpha Leporidae Desert Rabbit Sylvilagus audubonii Lower Risk Northeastern Puebla and western Veracruz, Mexico, to north central Montana and southwestern North Dakota, north central Utah, central Nevada, and northcentral California, south to Baja California and central Sinaloa, Mexico. 059, 1188, 1858 106       Habitat is varied, maily in dry lowlands including deserts, grasslands, riparian brush and pinon-juniper woodlands. Most active soon after dawn or at dusk. Retreats from heat of day into burrows made by another species or a shady thicket. moisture from food supplies needed water Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Lagomorpha Leporidae Eastern Cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Lower Risk Northern, central, and western Venezuela and adjacent islands and adjacent Colombia through Central America (disjunct in part); to northwestern Mexico, Arizona, north and east to North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Michigan, New York and Massachusetts, Atlantic Coast south and Florida Gulf Coast west to Mexico; also southern Saskatchewan, southern Ontario and south central Quebec, Canada. 058, 953 136       Thickets and old fields, edges of hardwood forest, farmland, prairies and swamps. One of most familiar rabbits, mainly nocturnal but may be active and dawns or dusk. Sleeps under brush piles or in thickets or dense grass. restricted to riparian habitats Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Soricomorpha Soricidae Masked shrew Sorex cinereus Least concern Throughout Alaska, south through most of Washington, Idaho, central Utah and Colorado into north central New Mexico, east through most of Wyoming and Nebraska, Iowa, northern Illinois, and most of Indiana and Ohio, and south throught the Appalachian Mountains to north east Georgia and on the East Coast south to Maryland and New Jersey. 1392 743              
Soricomorpha Soricidae Priarie shrew Sorex haydeni Least concern Northern plains states; Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, and Missouri.               some scientists classify as S. cinereus; may be found in drier habitats than most of its relatives  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Eastern mole Scalopus aquaticus Least concern Throughout south eastern United States north to Massachussetts to Minnesota. 647, 648 105         Throws up large molehills when excavating deep tunnels. Makes shallow burrows for feeding that may be used only once or may be used for several years. Preferes fields or woods with soft moist soils. fossorial  
Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana least concern found everywhere except NV, MT, UT, ND, SD, WI, MN, WY 3, 4, 630, 828, 829, 830 40         Nocturnal, introduced to the western states in the early 1900s nocturnal Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Cingulata Dasypodidae     Range has spread north & east since 1900 Nine-banded Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus least concern NM, CO, TX, OK, NE, KS, MO, AR, LA, TN, MS, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC 53, 242 162         always born in litters of 4 identical (same sex) quadruplets expanding its range northward Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.
Rodentia Erethizontidae Common Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum common   82, 870 29         active throughout year barbed quills; prefer wooded and forested areas Jones, J. K., Jr., et al. 1985. Guide to mammals of the plains states. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 371 pp. Jones, J. K., Jr.,et al. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xii + 379 pp.