Mammals of Illinois

Order

Family

Common Name

Species Name

Status

Distribution

Mammal Image Library #s

Mammalian Species #

IUCN Status

Introduced

Diet

Biome

Notes

IL Notes

IL Citations

Rodentia Muridae Prairie Vole Microtus ochrogaster Lower Risk Northern and Central Great Plains - EC Alberta to S Manitoba, Canada; south to N Texas Panhandle, SW Oklahoma and Arkansas; eastwards to C Tennessee, westernmost West Virginia, and W Ohio; relictual populations in C Colorado, N New Mexico and coastal prairies of SW Louisiana and adjacent Texas 1160 355         Most active at dawn or dusk. Unlike most voles, forms monogamous pairs that share a nest; both parents care for young and defend their home range. Older offspring may remain with parents and help tend a new litter. Habitat is prairies, grasslands and agricultural areas, usually on dry sandy soils at lower elevations. build and maintain intricate network of runways Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae Meadow Vole Microtus pennsylvanicus U.S. ESA - Endangered as M. p. dukecampbelli; IUCN - Vulnerable as M. p. dukecampbelli, Lower Risk (nt) as M. p. admiraltiae, M. p. kincaidi, M. p. provectus and M. p. shattucki, not evaluated as M. p. chihuahuensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Meadowlands interspersed across boreal and mixed coniferous-deciduous biomes of North America: C Alaska to Labrador, including Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, Canada; south in Rocky Mountains to N New Mexico, in Great Plains to N Kansas, and in Appalachians and along eastern seaboard to N Georgia and South Carolina; outlier populations in W New Mexico and peninsular Florida, and in N Chihuahua, Mexico 70 159         Active night or day; swims well but cannot climb. Highly prolific: breeds March-November or year-round; litter size is about 6; one female can have 17 litters per year (in captivity). Aggressive when caught, does not hesitate to bite. Habitat is damp meadows, roadsides, orchards and other areas with a thick cover of lush grass. extending its range southward along habitat created by interstate highways Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae Woodland Vole Microtus pinetorum Lower Risk Temperate deciduous forest zone of E USA - eastern shoreline from S Maine to NC Florida, west to C Wisconsin and E Texas; isolated population on the Edwards Plateau, C Texas, may be extinct   147         Mainly subterranean; makes burrows under leaf litter or in shallow soil, only emerging to race to another burrow. Lives in small family groups and is usually monogamous. Habitat is deciduous forest with thick leaf litter, grassy patches in woodlands or orchards and dense brush. Favors areas with sandy soils. woodland inhabitant Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae Eastern Woodrat Neotoma floridana U.S ESA - Endangered as N. f. smalli; IUCN - Endangered as N. f. smalli, Lower Risk (nt) as N. f. baileyi and N. f. haematoreia, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SC and SE USA from EC Colorado to C Texas, eastwards to the Atlantic seaboard, from S North Carolina to peninsular Florida; isolated population on Florida Keys (smalli) 1016 139         Active year-round, but may stay in its house in bad weather. Climbs well and is semi-arboreal. Habitat is variable; includes bluffs and rocky areas, swamps and hammocks, forested uplands and dry scrub pine. "pack rat"; inhabits rugged terrain Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae Golden Mouse Ochrotomys nuttalli Lower Risk SE USA, from SE Missouri across to E West Virginia and S Virginia, south to E Texas, the Gulf Coast and C Florida 1647 75         Semi-arboreal; climbs among vines and dense thickets using its semi-prehensile tail for balance. In addition to baseball-sized nests used by a single adult, sometimes makes larger nests occupied by a group of 8 or more. Habitat is forested areas with dense tangles of briars, vines and brush; most common in floodplains. prepare characteristic nests in vines, bushes, and trees Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae Common Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Data Deficient as O. z. ripensis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) North America, north to the tree line, including Newfoundland; south to the Gulf of Mexico, Rio Grande and lower Colorado River valleys. Introduced to Czech Republic in 1905 and now widespread in the Palearctic, including C and N Europe, most of Ukraine, Russia and Siberia, adjacent parts of Mongolia and scattered through China, NE Korea, and Honshu Island, Japan; also into southernmost Argentina 1162, 1163 141         Mainly nocturnal, but also active on overcast or rainy days; more likely to be seen by day than other large semiaquatic rodents. Swims well and is more buoyant than a beaver. Habitat is shallow marshes with abundant cattails; less common along streams or in wooded swamps. tail flattened laterally Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae Coues' Oryzomys Oryzomys couesi Lower Risk Extreme S Texas; Mexico, excluding NC plateau region, south through most of Central America, to NW Colombia; including Jamaica, Isla Cozumel, and allopatric populations in S Baja California Sur and WC Sonora             Semi-aquatic; swims well and usually dives into water if disturbed. Sometimes seen at night swimming in deep water at some distance from land. Lives in cattail and bulrush marshes, wet grassy areas near oxbow lakes in Texas; brackish or fresh water. Found in other habitats farther south, but almost always near water.    
Rodentia Muridae Cotton Deermouse Peromyscus gossypinus U.S. ESA - Endangered as P. g. allapaticola; IUCN - Extinct as P. g. restrictus, Vulnerable as P. g. allapaticola, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) SE USA, fro SE Oklahoma, extreme S Illinois and SE Virginia, southwards, skirting the S Appalachians, to E Texas, the Gulf States, and peninsular Florida 677, 678 70         Climbs and swims well. Eats a variety of plant and animal foods. Prefers wet forests, hammocks and swamps; also found in pine woods, thickets and rocky bluffs. last captured in Illinois in 1909 Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae White-footed Deermouse Peromyscus leucopus Data Deficient as P. l. ammodytes, otherwise Lower Risk S Alberta to S Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia, Canada; throughout much of C and E USA, excluding Florida; southwards to N Durango and along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec and NW Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico 73, 251, 1174 247         Mainly terrestrial, but climbs well and may forage or nest well above the ground. Swims well, occupies many islands in lakes. Habitat is deciduous and mixed forests, hedgerows, brushy areas, croplands and dry semidesert regions in the Southwest. all terrestrial habitats in Illinois, but prefer wooded or brushy areas Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae North American Deermouse Peromyscus maniculatus Lower Risk (nt) as P. m. anacapae and P. m. clemintis, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Panhandle of Alaska and across N Canada, south through most of continental USA, excluding the SE and E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico; including many land bridge islands 74, 1175           Woodland forms climb very well and are semi-arboreal. Feeds on seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi and other foods; stores excess in caches. Occupies almost every habitat type, from boreal forest and tundra to desert, prairies, swamps and high mountains. occur in prairie or grassland habitat in Illinois Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae Western Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis Lower Risk SC British Columbia and SE Alberta, Canada; through much of W and NC USA; south to N Baja California Norte and through interior Mexico to C Oaxaca 1018 167         Feeds on small seeds, moth larvae, beetles and other insects. Nests are usually well concealed on the ground or low in vegetation. Prefers wet meadows and overgrown fields; also found in dry areas and clearing in forests. increasing their range to the south and east Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae Southern Bog Lemming Synaptomys cooperi Extinct as S. c. paludis and S. c. relictus, otherwise Lower Risk (lc) Midwestern and E USA through SE Canada, including Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island; as far south as W North Carolina and NE Arkansas; outlying populations in SW Kansas, W Nebraska, and the Dismal Swamp region of SE Virginia-NE North Carolina 682 210         Mainly nocturnal, sometimes active by day. Eats mostly grass and sedges, also some fungi, berries and moss. Lives in colonies of 3-30. Habitat is variable, but usually in or near green grass and sedge; found around sphagnum bogs, in dense woodlands, spruce-fir forest and in dry bluegrass fields. occur sporadically in Illinois; good swimmers Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Geomyidae Idaho Pocet Gopher Thomomys idahoensis Lowered Risk as T. idahoensis and as T. i. Confinus. Eastcentral Idaho, adjacent Montana and western Wyoming, and northern Utah.     X            
Rodentia Geomyidae Northern Pocket Gopher Thomomys talpoides Vulnerable as T. t. douglasii, Lower Risk as T. t. limosus and T. t. segregatus, otherwise Lower Risk. Southern British Columbia to central Alberta and southwestern Manitoba, Canada, south to central South Dakota and northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, northern Nevada, and northeastern California.   618 X            
Rodentia Geomyidae Townsend's Pocket Gopher Thomomys townsendii Lower risk Snake River Valley of Idaho south and west to southeastern Oregon, northeastern California, and northern Nevada.   719              
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern fox squirrel Sciurus niger   Texas north to Manitoba, east to the Atlantic Coast. 96, 880, 1644, 1645 479   introduced population       woodland dweller, occupying forest edge habitat; largest tree squirrel in U.S. Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus   Eastern United States; Louisiana north to southern Manitoba and Nova Scotia east to the Atlantic Coast. 110, 259 168 Least concern         live in wooded areas or those with much underbrush; internal cheek pouches Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Sciuridae North American red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus   Alaska and throughout Canada; northeastern United States, south to northwestern South Carolina. 111, 260, 826, 827 586 Least concern         range reduced with destruction of forest land Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Muridae House Mouse Mus musculus Lower risk Every state in the United States. 92, 754             from Europe; frequently associated with man made structures Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Sciuridae Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans   Eastern half f the United States from southern Canada to Florida. 1021, 1022 78 Least concern       subspecies G. v. saturates occurs throughout; G. v. texensis possibly occurs in extreme SW corner; G. v. volans possibly occurs in extreme northern counties nocturnal; great gliders; common in hardwood forests Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Sciuridae Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus   Great Plains, from central Texas to eastern Utah, Ohio, and south central Canada. 103, 573 103 Least concern         nearly half the year may be spent in hibernation Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Sciuridae Franklin's ground squirrel Poliocitellus franklinii   Northern Great Plains; south central Canada south to Kansas, Illinois, and Indiana. 104 724 Least concern         may feed on bird eggs and small ground-dwelling birds Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Sciuridae Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis   Eastern Texas north to Saskatchewan Canada and east to the Atlantic Coast. 94, 95 480 Least concern       subspecies is S. c. carolinensis populations have decreased in numbers with the reduction of forest Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Canidae Eastern Coyote Canis latrans Common Throughout continental US. 265 (C), 1126, 1127 (B), 1267 79         Larger than western coyote. Slide symbol: B -- specialized behavior; C -- Close-up of head region. Population has been increasing rapidly since 1970's Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Common Throughout the US except in the southwest. 435 (W), 436 (Y), 582 537         This species helps keep small mammal populations in check; white tail tip. Slide symbol: W -- female with young; Y -- young, may be newborn. May have been introduced from Europe Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Canidae Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Common Nationwide except for the northwest. 584 189         Black dorsal stripe on tail; climbs trees. commonly climbs trees Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Mustelidae Ermine or Short-tailed Weasel Mustela erminea Common All of Canada, northeastern US, Great Lakes region, northwestern US. 588 (P), 1051 (P) 195         Color varies seasonally, mainly eats rodents and young rabbits, as well as small vertebrates and invertebrates.  Nocturnal. Slide symbol: P -- unusual color phase. May occasionally wander in from southern Wisconsin Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Common Southwestern Canada, everywhere south of Canada/US border to South America except arid desert areas of southwest US and northwest Mexico. 1348 570         Prefers rodents, but feeds on a broad array of small vertebrates.  Agile swimmer.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, but not southern populations. this is the most likely encountered of the weasels Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Mustelidae Least Weasel Mustela nivalis Common Alaska, Midwest, Great Lakes, and (No Suggestions) states. 440, 1214, 1350 454         Avoids woodlands.  Active at all times of day and all times of the year.  Northern populations vary in color seasonally, southern populations do not.  Females have more than one litter per year. smallest carnivore in the world Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Mustelidae American Mink Neovison vison Common Alaska and contiguous 48 states, except for arid west and southwest. 1129 608         Though taken for their fur, ranched mink have relieved the pressure on wild ones.  Mink eat crayfish, fish, frogs, and small rodents along with any other animals they can capture and kill. semi-aquatic Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Mustelidae American Badger Taxidea taxus Common within range Western and central North America, from central Canada to central Mexico. 701 (C), 702 (A), 703 (H) 26         Because of their secretive and fossorial (digging) habits badgers are not often seen.  Persecuted by humans, though sometimes inadvertently when taking poisoned meat meant for wolves and coyotes. Slide symbol: C -- Close-up of head region. A -- anatomical specialization. H -- habitat or sign of animals activity. Tree removal has increased badger distribution throughout state Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Mustelidae Northern River Otter Lontra canadensis Common in the northern part of its range, uncommon to extirpated in southern parts of its range. Alaska and most of the continental US except for much of the southwestern continental US. 802 (A), 859 (W) 587         Playful, likes to slide on the snow.  Eats fish and other aquatic or amphibious animals. Slide symbol: A -- anatomical specialization. W -- female with young. Was once widely distributed, now it is rarely encountered Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Mephitidae Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis Common Throughout continental US except a small area in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 280 173         Sometimes de-scented and kept as pets (not recommended).  Good "mouser" and will use cat litter boxes. predominately feeds on insects (also known to eat other invertebrates, fruits, vegetables, small mammals, birds, grasses, amphibians, reptiles and carrion) Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor Common Common throughout US except portions of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. 140, 709 (S) 119         Raccoons are extremely adaptable and can live in a wide range of temperatures.  They are found virtually anywhere there is water.  Their diet is extremely varied including plant and animal material.  The forefeet of raccoons end in highly sensitive hand-l Slide symbol: S -- skull. Does not wash food Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Carnivora Felidae Bobcat Lynx rufus Rare or common, depending on geographic region. All of contiguous US, except for parts of California, Utah, Colorado,  agricultural areas of the midwest and coastal areas of the midAtlantic states. 819, 1293 563         As with the Canada lynx, bobcats are very secretive and seldom observed even in areas it occupies.  Slightly smaller than the lynx, it is capable of taking adult white-tailed deer.  Though mainly a carnivore,  areas a large array of plant and animal mater short tufts of hair on ears; once occurred statewide Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Artiodactyla Cervidae White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Common Throughout North America, except northern Canada and very arid areas of western US. 1313 388           Illinois population was practically exterminated by late 1800's; they have since rebounded Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Soricomorpha Soricidae Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda Least concern North-central and northeastern United States and adjacent provinces of southern Canada.   261           venomous; most abundant mammal in forested areas  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Southern short-tailed shrew Blarina carolinensis Least concern Southeastern corner of the United States.  Occurs as far west as eastern Texas and eastern Arkansas; as far north as southern Missouri and southern Illinoios; south to central Florida; north to southern Virginia.  Distribution does not extend far into Appalachian mountains. 20, 644 673           smaller than B. brevicauda  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Least shrew Cryptotis parva Least concern Concentrated in the southwestern United States.  From Florida up to New York and reaches as far west as Texas and South Dakota. 957 43           active day and night  
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous US and Alaska 39, 223 356 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Eptesicini closely associated with man; roosts in barns, caves, mines, bridges & hollow trees Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis Lower Risk (lc) Central and eastern United States 40, 655, 815 183 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini roosts in trees; interfemoral membrane is heavily furred Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the contiguous United States and Hawaii 656, 041, 042 185 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Lasiurini; *Status is Low Risk eith the exception of L. c. semotus roosts in trees; interfemoral membrane is heavily furred; generally present during migratory flights to the N or S. Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Evening Bat Nycticeius humeralis Lower Risk (lc) Southern tip of Texas to Nebraska, the Great Lakes area, and Pennsylvania south to Florida and the Gulf Coast 232 23 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Nycticeiini frequently found in man-made structures; does not hibernate in Illinois Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Pipistrelle Perimyotis subflavus Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States excluding Maine and southern Florida 38, 654 228 Lower Risk (lc)       TRIBE Pipistrellini males significantly outnumber females in hibernaculum Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat Corynorhinus rafinesquii Vulnerable Southeastern United States 394 69 Vulnerable       TRIBE Plecotini; *Status is Vulnerable as Plecotus rafinesquii form small colonies in summer; smaller groups or solitary in winter Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans Lower Risk (lc) Throughout the United States except extreme southern protions of southern states.  Also occurs in southeastern Alaska. 658 172 Lower Risk (lc)         year-round resident in southern Illinois Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Southeastern Myotis Myotis austroriparius Lower Risk (lc) Southeastern United States including Florida, north to Indiana and North Carolina, west to Texas and sooutheastern Oklahoma   332 Lower Risk (lc)         hibernating individuals are easily disturbed Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Gray Myotis Myotis grisescens Endangered Florida panhandle to Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, E Kansas and NE Oklahoma 228 510 Endangered         wing membrane attached to ankle Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Eastern Small-footed Myotis Myotis leibii Lower Risk (lc) Southern Maine, south to Georgia and west to eastern Oklahoma   547 Lower Risk (lc)            
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus Lower Risk (lc) Most of US, except Texas to Nebraska, and extreme southern portions of southern states 224, 225, 814 142 Lower Risk (lc)         hibernates in caves Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Northern Myotis Myotis septentrionalis Lower Risk (lc) Eastern United States, eastern Montana, eastern Wyoming, south to Alabama, Georgia, and Florida panhandle 226, 227 634 Lower Risk (lc)            
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Indiana Myotis Myotis sodalis Endangered New Hampshire to Florida panhandle, west to Wisconsin and Oklahoma 391 163 Endangered         90% of population occupies five caves in surrounding states Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Lagomorpha Leporidae White-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus townsendii Lower risk Central Alberta and Saskatchewan east to extreme southwestern Ontario, Canada, south to southwestern Wisconsin, Iowa, northwestern Missouri, west through central Kansas to north central New Mexico, west to central Nevada, east central California, US, and north to south central British Columbia, Canada. 1189, 1349 288       Open grasslands, meadows and cultivated areas; less common in sagebrush flats. Mainly nocturnal, but may be active at dawn or dusk.  When pursued, follows a zigzag path with big leaps and bursts of speed. dark summer pelage; white winter pelage (ears black at tip) Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Lagomorpha Leporidae Swamp Rabbit Sylvilagus aquaticus Lower Risk Southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana, southwestern Missouri to southeastern Kansas southward through extreme western Kentucky and western Tennessee to eastern Oklahoma, eastern Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and NW South Carolina.   151       Swamps, marshes and bottomlands. Active at dawn and in the late afternoon in spring and summer, mostly nocturnal in winter. Swims well, unlike most rabbits; very territorial. swamp habitat Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Lagomorpha Leporidae Eastern Cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Lower Risk Northern, central, and western Venezuela and adjacent islands and adjacent Colombia through Central America (disjunct in part); to northwestern Mexico, Arizona, north and east to North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Michigan, New York and Massachusetts, Atlantic Coast south and Florida Gulf Coast west to Mexico; also southern Saskatchewan, southern Ontario and south central Quebec, Canada. 058, 953 136       Thickets and old fields, edges of hardwood forest, farmland, prairies and swamps. One of most familiar rabbits, mainly nocturnal but may be active and dawns or dusk. Sleeps under brush piles or in thickets or dense grass. female may produce 20 to 25 young per breeding season Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Soricomorpha Soricidae Masked shrew Sorex cinereus Least concern Throughout Alaska, south through most of Washington, Idaho, central Utah and Colorado into north central New Mexico, east through most of Wyoming and Nebraska, Iowa, northern Illinois, and most of Indiana and Ohio, and south throught the Appalachian Mountains to north east Georgia and on the East Coast south to Maryland and New Jersey. 1392 743           active day and night  
Soricomorpha Soricidae Southeastern shrew Sorex longirostris Least concern Southeastern United States; East of the Mississippi River, north to central Illinois and Maryland.  According to species account there are a few records in Arkansas and Missouri.   143           primarily diurnal  
Soricomorpha Talpidae Star-nosed mole Condylura cristata Least concern Geogria and north west South Carolina to Nova Scotia and Labrador; Great Lakes region to south eastern Manitoba. 649, 650 129         Unlike other moles, swims well and makes tunnels leading into water; also active on or under snow. May travel on the surface. Elsewhere makes deep burrows and throws up molehills. Habitat is wet areas in meadows, woods, swamps or streams, usually in mucky    
Soricomorpha Talpidae Eastern mole Scalopus aquaticus Least concern Throughout south eastern United States north to Massachussetts to Minnesota. 647, 648 105         Throws up large molehills when excavating deep tunnels. Makes shallow burrows for feeding that may be used only once or may be used for several years. Preferes fields or woods with soft moist soils. fossorial  
Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana least concern found everywhere except NV, MT, UT, ND, SD, WI, MN, WY 3, 4, 630, 828, 829, 830 40         Nocturnal, introduced to the western states in the early 1900s nocturnal marsupial Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Rodentia Erethizontidae Common Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum common   82, 870 29         active throughout year barbed quills; may have been extirpated before 1850 Hoffmeister, D. F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.