Mammals of Florida

ORDER/Family Common Name Species Status Distribution ASM Slide Library* Mamm. Species # Comments
MARSUPIALIA              
Didelphidae Virginia opossum Didelphis virginia common statewide 4(W), 630, 828(B) 40 nocturnal
INSECTIVORA              
Soricidae Southern short-tailed shrew Blairina carolinensis common statewide except for Keys 20, 644(S) - populations in Collier Co. (southwest peninsula) listed by State as Species-of-Special-Concern
  Least shrew Cryptotis parva common statewide except for Keys 957 43  
  Southeastern shrew Sorex longirostris uncommon north Fla., south through C Fla. and on central ridge through southcentral Fla. - 143  
Talpidae Star-nosed mole Condylura cristata peripheral; rare Okefenokee area of N Fla.; possibly in Leon Co. 649(C), 650(B) 129 fossorial
  Eastern mole Scalopus aquaticus common statewide except for Keys 647 (C), 648 (S) 105 fossorial; tunnels often visible on surface
CHIROPTERA              
Molossidae Wagner's mastiff bat Eumops glaucinus rare south Fla. only in Miami, Coral Gables area - 551  
  Little mastiff bat Molossus molossus rare lower Keys 811(A) -  
  Brazilian free-tailed bat Tadarida braziliensis common statewide except for Keys 729 331  
Phyllostomidae Jamaican fruit-eating bat Artibeus jamaicensis rare lower Keys only 812(Y), 1195(C) -  
Vespertilionidae Rafinesque's big-eared bat Corynorhinus rafinesquii rare statewide except southern tip of peninsula and Keys 394 (C) 69  
  Big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus common statewide except for Keys 39 (C), 223 356  
  Silver-haired bat Lasionycteris noctivagans peripheral; rare extreme N Fla.; known only from N Santa Rosa Co. (W panhandle) and possibly N Nassau Co. (NE) 658 172 present in Fla. only as a winter migrant
  Eastern red bat Lasiurus borealis uncommon panhandle and N1/4 of peninsula 40, 655 (C), 815 (C) 183 present in Fla. only as a winter migrant
  Hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus uncommon panhandle and N1/2 of peninsula 41, 42, 656 185 present in Fla. only as a winter migrant
  Northern yellow bat Lasiurus intermedius common statewide except southern tip of peninsula and Keys - 132 solitary; often roosts in spanish moss
  Seminole bat Lasiurus seminolus common statewide except southern tip of peninsula and Keys - 280 solitary; often roosts in spanish moss
  Southeastern bat Myotis austroriparius common cave habitats in panhandle and, disjunct, northeastern and northcentral peninsula - 332  
  Gray bat Myotis grisescens rare known only from panhandle, Marianna, Jackson Co. area 228 -  
  Little brown bat Myotis lucifugus rare known only from panhandle, Okaloosa Co. 224, 225 (G), 814 (G) 142  
  Northern myotis Myotis septentrionalis rare known only from panhandle, Marianna, Jackson Co. area 227 121 formerly M. keeni septentrionalis
  Indiana bat Myotis sodalis rare known only from panhandle, Marianna, Jackson Co. area 391(P) 163  
  Evening bat Nycticeius humeralis common statewide except for Keys 232 23 frequently found in man-made structures
  Eastern pipistrelle Pipistrellus subflavus uncommon panhandle and N 1/2 to 2/3 of peninsula 38, 654 (C) 228 Florida's smallest bat
PRIMATES              
Cercopithecidae Rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta introduced Ocala, Silver Springs; 816(G) - native to southern Asia
Hominidae Humans; man Homo sapiens abundant statewide - - probably originated in E Africa; established worldwide
XENARTHRA              
Dasypodidae Nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus common statewide, except possibly some parts of Everglades 53, 242 162 always born in litters of 4 identical (same sex) quadruplets
LAGOMORPHA              
Leporidae Black-tailed jackrabbit Lepus californicus introduced established in Homestead area, esp. around airport 60, 245(Y) 530 native to western U.S.; primarily nocturnal
  Swamp rabbit Sylvilagus aquaticus rare; unconfirmed possibly present in Escambia Co., extreme W panhandle, but no records known - 151 presence in Florida is uncertain
  Cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus common statewide except Keys 58, 953 (Y) 136 usually restricted to upland habitats; often rare in pine forests
  Marsh rabbit Sylvilagus palustris common statewide including Keys - 153 usually restricted to wetland habitats
RODENTIA              
Castoridae Beaver Castor canadensis locally common panhandle and N 1/3 of peninsula, except coastal areas 247(H), 248(H), 408, 409(H), 410(H), 1239 120 largest native rodent; dams can cause flooding problems for people
Sciuridae Southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans common statewide except Keys and possibly southwest peninsula 1021, 1022(B) 78 nocturnal; great gliders (volant)
  Red-bellied squirrel Sciurus aureogaster introduced established on Elliot Key near Miami -   probably survived Hurricane Andrew; native to southern Mexico
  Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis common statewide except lower Keys 94, 95(C) 480 the common backyard squirrel
  Fox squirrel Sciurus niger rare or locally uncommon statewide except Keys; possibly extirpated in southeastern peninsula 96, 880 479 usually restricted to longleaf pine forests; often partially black
  Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus uncommon northern half of western panhandle in mesic forest areas 110, 259(AB) 168  
Geomyidae Southeastern pocket gopher Geomys pinetis locally common panhandle and N 1/2 to 2/3 of peninsula 1244 86 fossorial; solitary; prefers sandhill habitats; pushes excavated dirt to surface in large mounds, often in irregular lines
Myocastoridae Nutria Myocastor coypus introduced Duval Co. and panhandle populations; possibly established statewide except Keys 1019 398  
Muridae Silver rice rat Oryzomys argentatus rare or locally uncommon present only in certain Lower Keys - -  
  Marsh rice rat Oryzomys palustris locally common statewide in saltmarsh and associated habitats 252 176  
  Eastern harvest mouse Reithrodontomys humulis locally common panhandle and N 2/3 of peninsula in oldfields, grasslands, and fields 685 565  
  Cotton mouse Peromyscus gossypinus common statewide in forests and mixed forest/grasslands 677, 678(C) 70  
  Beach mouse; Oldfield mouse Peromyscus polionouts rare; uncommon coastal dunes and dunes on some barrier islands; panhandle and N 2/3 of peniinsula in dry, sandy, oldfields and grasslands - - several subspecies of beach mouse are recognized
  Florida mouse Podomys floridanus rare central peninsula, mostly in habitats along central ridges 879 427 usually associated with gopher tortoise burrows in sandy, upland habitats
  Golden mouse Ochrotomys nuttalli locally common panhandle and N 1/2 of peninsula - 75  
  Hispid cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus common statewide 76, 1177 158  
  Eastern woodrat; Key Largo woodrat Neotoma floridana locally uncommon; rare panhandle, N 2/3 of peninsula; Key Largo 1016 139 Key Largo woodrat is vulnerable to extinction
  Florida saltmarsh vole Microtus pennsylvanicus rare saltmarsh in Cedar Key area of Gulf coast 70 159 known only from one site
  Pine vole Microtus pinetorum uncommon central portion of N 1/3 of peninsula - 147  
  Round-tailed muskrat Neofiber alleni locally common peninsula and isolated populations in Apalachicola and Okefenokee areas - 15  
  House mouse Mus musculus common statewide 92, 754 -  
  Roof or Black rat Rattus rattus common statewide 759, 760(B) -  
  Norway rat Rattus norvegicus common statewide 755(W), 756(G), 757(B) -  
Hydrochaeridae Capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris introduced probably several small populations N peninsular Florida 670(B), 671 264 possibly established in area around Gainesville and Lake City as a result of one or more releases
CARNIVORA              
Canidae Feral domestic dog Canis familiaris locally common; escaped or released statewide - - reports from many places; unknown if populations may become established
  Coyote Canis latrans uncommon or locally common statewide 265(C), 1126, 1127, 1267 79 becoming more common throughout state
  Red wolf Canis rufus rare; introduced St. Vincent Is. 264, 968 22 established only as a captive breeding population
  Red fox Vulpes vulpes uncommon or locally common statewide 435(W), 436(Y), 582 537 considered a protected species by the State
  Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus uncommon or locally common statewide 584 189  
Ursidae Black bear Ursus americanus rare or uncommon localized populations statewide except Keys 142(C), 1132(S) - populations on national forests and some other large, managed areas; individuals and small groups exist in other areas
Procyonidae Raccoon Procyon lotor abundant statewide 140, 709(S) 119  
Mustelidae Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata rare statewide except Everglades area and Keys - 570  
  Mink Mustala vison rare coastal marshes in W panhandle, Big Bend area, NE area, and Everglades 1129 -  
  River otter Lutra canadensis locally common mostly freshwater habitats, primarily rivers and streams, statewide except Keys - -  
Mephitidae (formerly Mustelidae) Striped skunk Mephitis mephitis common statewide except Keys 280(S) 173  
  Spotted skunk Spilogale putorius common statewide except northeast corner and Keys in fields and open woods; usually seems to avoid wetlands - 511  
Felidae Feral domestic cat Felis catus abundant; escaped or released statewide - - expected to have negative impacts on a wide range of native faunal species
  Florida panther Felis concolor rare restricted to Green Swamp and Big Cypress areas in SW peninsula 275, 276, 586(C) 200 few individuals remain; continued existence of this species in Florida is uncertain
  Jaguarundi Felis yagouaroundi possibly introduced N 2/3 of peninsula - - reports of releases; known only from isolated, unconfirmed reports of sightings
  Bobcat Lynx rufus common statewide, including northern Keys 819 563  
PINNIPEDIA              
Phocidae West Indian monk seal Monachus tropicalis extinct   - -  
  Harbor seal Phoca vitulina rare east coastal marine areas to C Florida 135, 5949C), 1131 -  
  Hooded seal Cystophora cristata rare east coastal marine areas to C Florida - 258  
SIRENIA              
Trichechidae West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus rare coastal marine areas, but not usually N of Suwannee R. in Gulf; enters rivers and connected springs 290, 291(BC), 292(A), 1139(S), 1140(S), 1141(S) 93  
ARTIODACTYLA              
Suidae Feral pig Sus scrofa locally common statewide except Keys 323 -  
Cervidae White-tailed deer; Key deer Odocoileus virginianus common or locally abundant; rare statewide except Keys; Keys 185(F), 186(A), 803(M), 1279(M) 388 becoming more common in suburban areas where it is becoming a nuisance
  Elk Cervus elaphus introduced single population in Highlands county 189(M), 190(G), 191(F), 318(Y), 809(FM), 863(M), 864(F), 1077(F), 1278(B) -  
  Sambar deer Cervus unicolor introduced St. Vincent Island 1080(F) - introduced in 1908
CETACEA              
Delphinidae Bottle-nosed dolphin Turciops truncatus common coastal marine areas 262, 980, 981(G) -  
  Rough-toothed dolphin Steno bredanensis rare coastal marine areas - - recorded from Big Bend and Tampa areas
  Long-beaked dolphin Stenella longirostris rare coastal marine areas - - unconfirmed records along Gulf coast and strandings in Franklin Co. in 1961
  Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis rare coastal marine areas 580 - records from Miami and Sebastian areas; includes S. plagiodon
  Striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba rare coastal marine areas - - records from Indian Rocks Beach
  Common or Saddleback dolphin Delphinus delphis rare coastal marine areas 579 - records from St. Johns county
  Grampus or Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus rare coastal marine areas 1055(C) - recorded near St. Augustine and Tarpon Springs
  False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens rare coastal marine areas 1059, 1134(S) 456 records from Indian River, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Broward, and Dade counties
  Killer whale Orcinus orca rare coastal marine areas 979(B), 1057(C), 1058(A), 1133(S) 304 records from Marineland (St. Johns county) through Keys to Collier county
  Short-finned pilot whale Globicephala macrorhyncha uncommon coastal marine areas 929(B), 930(CA) - numerous records along entire coast
Ziphiidae Goose-beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris rare coastal marine areas - - recorded from St. Johns, Volusia, Brevard, and Pasco counties
  Antillean beaked whale Mesoplodon europaeus rare coastal marine areas - -  
  True's beaked whale Mesoplodon mirus rare Atlantic coastal marine areas S to Flagler Co. - -  
Physeteridae Sperm whale Physeter catodon rare coastal marine areas - - also referred to as P. macrocephalus; records from Atlantic and Gulf coasts
  Pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps uncommon coastal marine areas 1137(S), 1138(S) - numerous records along Atlantic coast, but rarely along Gulf coast
Balaenopteridae Minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata rare coastal marine areas - - recorded from Keys and Big Bend area
  Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis rare coastal marine areas 577(B) - recorded off Duval county
  Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni rare coastal marine areas - - recorded from Wakulla county
  Finback whale Balaenoptera physalus rare coastal marine areas 769(A) - recorded from Volusia county
  Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae rare coastal marine areas 575, 576(B), 698, 768(AB) - recorded from Palm Beach county and off Keys and Dade county
Balaenidae Right whale Eubalaena glacialis uncommon coastal marine areas - - winter migrant off Florida; recorded off Atlantic and Gulf coasts
               
REFERENCES              
Brown, L. N. 1997. Mammals of Florida. Windward Publishing, Miami, Florida, 224 pp.              
Burt, W. H., and R. P. Grossenheider. 1976. A field guide to the mammals of America north of Mexico. Third ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 289 pp.              
Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. Fifth ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1629 pp.              
Stevenson, H. M. 1976. Vertebrates of Florida, identification and distribution. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 607 pp.              
Whitaker, J. O., Jr., and W. J. Hamilton, Jr. 1998. Mammals of the eastern United States. Third ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 583 pp.              
               
* SLIDE SYMBOLS              
No symbol -- portrait     H -- habitat or sign of animals activity        
A -- anatomical specialization     M -- male, when sexes differ        
B -- specialized behavior     P -- unusual color phase        
C -- Close-up of head region     S -- skull        
F -- female, when sexes differ     W -- female with young        
FM -- female(s) and male(s) shown when differences obvious     Y -- young, may be newborn        
G -- Group              
               
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