It is often difficult to test hypotheses about how and why animal movement responds to environmental conditions, and at what spatial scales movement decisions are made, all of which are critical for sound management. We used fractal dimension (D) as a measure of tortuosity because it described animal movement patterns and was useful for testing hypotheses about effects of sex, home-range size, monthly rainfall, and reproductive phase on movement paths and for detecting changes in movement patterns of animals across a range of movement distances. We captured and fitted 33 (18 females and 15 males) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with global positioning system collars. We found that females moved more tortuously (D = 1.75 ± 0.035 SE) than males (D = 1.549 ± 0.025). These differences in movement were related to home-range size of females but not of males. Rainfall predicted D for females; thus, females may have been able to forage more intensively in a smaller area due to increased forage availability. Fractal D of females was greatest during the parturition period (1.468 ± 0.02), likely due to restricted movements in smaller areas or increased foraging. Home-range size of males was similar in spring and rut, but D was lower during rut, indicating that deer changed movement patterns within previously established home ranges. Movement patterns were similar at path lengths related to foraging patches and home ranges, whereas movement patterns changed as path length approximated the size of habitat patches.
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